NEU258_Lecture5_Motivation_Reward2 notes

NEU258_Lecture5_Motivation_Reward2 notes - Lecture 5...

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Lecture 5 -... Audio recording started: 11:02 AM Thursday, September 27, 2012 First system deals with emotion, motivation, etc… Hypothalamus is at the heart of emotional state It is at the base of the brain Suprachiasmatic nucleus - regulates 24 hours schedule Hypothalamus is the emotional interface The hypothalamus has a paraventricular region - neurons that project out - straight to the pituitary Hypothalamus and regulation of the pituitary gland Pituitary Gland - See Diagram 1 The pituitary has an anterior and a posterior region Have axons that project out to the posterior pituitary They are large axons, thus they have large cells bodies - they sustain the axons/machinery They secrete hormones - not a synapse (actually secretes into the neurons) There are magnocellular cells = cells of big body (size) Much shorter axons (project into the anterior pituitary ) The portal system does not get out into the rest of the blood stream (insulated from the other blood systems) They project into a separate blood system (Portal system) Cells at the bottom of the anterior pituitary are glandular cells (they are affected by the hormones secreted by parvocellular cells) There are parvocellular cells = small cells It is a special chemical secrete by cell in the It induces cells in the anterior pituitary to release growth hormone The secretion of growth hormone is under the control of neurons Clocks control the release of the growth hormones Growth hormone is secreted at night Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) Cause thyrotropin to be released into the body This induces the thyroid to induce its own hormones The thyrotropin- releasing hormone Hormones from the anterior pituitary: Constriction of blood vessels Induces water reabsorption by the kidneys Increases blood pressures It serves a whole range of function: It seems that it deals with pairing (relationship-wise) It has been called the monogamy hormone Voles that are monogamous have large amounts of vasopressin Vasopressin Hormones from the posterior pituitary: Oxytocin is also release by the magnocellular cells (and posterior pituitary) Lecture 5 - Motivation and reward II Thursday, September 27, 2012 11:00 AM NEU 258 - Fundamentals of Neuroscience Page 1
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It triggers uterus contractions Causes milk ejection Skin touch helps to promote release of oxytocin In the brain, it can promote pair bonding; warm fuzzy emotional attachment to someone else (friends, lovers, etc…)
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  • Fall '11
  • Graziano
  • lateral hypothalamus

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