PSYA01 Chapter 2 - PSYA01 CHAPTER TWO THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD...

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PSYA01 CHAPTER TWO THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN PSYCHOLOGY goal of sci.ic psy. research – discover the causes of behaviour to do so we need to describe behaviours and events responsible for them ina language easy enough to understand and general enough to apply to a variety to things it has a set of logical and common-sense rules that sci.ists should follow 3 types of research: 1) Naturalistic observations – observations in natural env., least rules, least formal, provide the foundations of biological and social sci.’s. 2) Correlational studies – in nature, but involve formal measurements of env.al events, ind.’s social and physical characteristics and behaviour, to explain the observed behaviours. 3) Experiments – only experiments can (+)ly identify the causal relations and among events sci.ic method – set of rules that governs the collection and analysis of data gained through observational studies and experiments Rules of Scientific Method: 1. Identifying the problem & formulating hypothetical cause-and-effect relations: identifying variables and describing the relation b/w them in general terms (e.g. if you know what to expect, it’s easier to detect something) 2. Designing the experiment: manipulation of independent variables and observation of dependent variables; independent should be controlled 3. Perform the experiment: organize the exp., observations recorded 4. Evaluate the hypothesis by examining the observed: usually mathematical procedures used to determine whether the data is statistically sign. 5. Communicate the results: discuss the results (newspapers, journals, conferences) Replication – another sci.ist performs the same experiment to ensure it’s validity. Hypothesis a statement that expresses a cause-and-effect relationship b/w two events Theories set of statements that explain a set of phenomena Naturalistic Observations
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  • Fall '09
  • joorden
  • Psychology, researcher, independent variables, variable – variable

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