Motivation 13 - Human behavior is notoriously inconsistent...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

Human behavior is notoriously inconsistent. The reasons for inconsistent behavior are aspects of motivation. Motivation refers to a driving force that moves us to a particular action. Motivation is a general term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature of an individual’s behavior, the strength of the behavior, and the persistence of the behavior. Motivation includes two types of phenomena. 1. first, stimuli that have become associated with pleasant or unpleasant events motivate approach or avoidance behaviors. 2. second, being deprived of a particular reinforce increases an organism’s preference for a particular behavior. There are many approaches to motivation: physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and social. We are motivated to perform a behavior to gain- avoid losing a reinforcer or to avoid-escape from a punisher. Complex organisms possess physiological mechanisms that detect deficits or imbalances associated with essential needs and related regulatory behaviors that bring physiological conditions back to normal. The process of detection and correction which maintains physiological systems at their optimum value is homeostasis . Deficits or imbalances motivate us because they cause us to perform the appropriate regulatory behaviors. A regulatory system has four essential features: The system variable- characteristic to be regulated. A set point- optimum value of the system variable A detector- that monitors the value of the system variable A correctional mechanism- restores the system variable to the set point. Because the activity of the correctional mechanism-heat production feeds back to the thermostat and causes it to turn the heater off, this process is called negative feedback. The earliest systematic attempt to explain the nature of motivation and reinforcement was drive reduction hypothesis . It states that biological needs, caused by deprivation of the necessities of life are unpleasant that causes an organism to engage in motivate behaviors. Reduction of drive is assumed to be reinforcing. Hunger serves as a drive, energizing an organism’s behavior. The act of eating reduces hunger, and this drive reduction is reinforcing. The drive reduction hypothesis of reinforcement is disliked for two primary reasons. 1. drive is almost always impossible to measure. It cannot be experimentally tested. 2. if we examine our own behavior, we find that many events we experience as reinforcing are also exciting or drive increasing.
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

The removal of an aversive stimulus produces negative reinforcement . In an attempt to find a common explanation for positive and negative reinforcement, the optimum-level hypothesis of reinforcement and punishment. When an individual’s arousal level is too high, less stimulation is reinforcing, when it is too low, more stimulation is desired.
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.
  • Winter '09
  • Joordens
  • fat cells, sex hormones, Drive Reduction Hypothesis, short term reservoir

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern