Chapter 15 - CHAPTER 15 about buying a new car with the...

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CHAPTER 15 about buying a new car with the salesperson called Greg Greg tried to ‘ lowballing ’- a technique whereby a salesperson quotes a very low price, only to find a reason (for example, a mistake reading the invoice) to raise the price later He ended up getting it for the quoted price and Greg went back to used car lot Most human activates are social Social psychology – the branch of psychology that studies our social nature – how the actual, imagined or implied presence of others influences our thoughts, feelings, and behaviours Interaction with other people affect all aspects of human behaviour from infancy through old age from emotions, thoughts, personalities, and perception SOCIAL CONGNITION Social cognition – the process involved in perceiving, interpreting, and acting on social information SCHEMATA AND SOCIAL COGNITION All of us form impression of others through casual observation or reports from others Major task of social psychologist is to understand how we form these impressions so they study impression formation Impression formation – the way in which we integrate information about another’s traits into a coherent sense of who the person is SCHEMA Schema – a mental framework or body of knowledge that organizes and synthesizes information about a person, place, or thing Example : passage without the title “Washing Clothes” CENTRAL TRAITS Central traits – personality attributes that organize and influence the interpretation of other traits o Impart meaning to other known traits and suggest the presence of yet other traits that have yet to be revealed Peripheral traits – make no difference in traits
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o Example : ‘blunt’ and ’polite’ Recent study suggests that the negative influence of the ‘cold’ trait is stronger than the positive influence of the ‘warm’ trait THE PRIMARY EFFECT First impressions vs. later impression study with the words in opposite orders P rimacy effect – the tendency to form impressions of people cased on the first information we receive about him Primacy effect was more pronounced for participants who were mentally fatigues than alert Brown and Bassili suggested that people generate trait-like labels from observed behaviour and that those labels become rather automatically associated in memory with whatever stimulus happens to have been around at the same time the information about the behaviour became available o Example : banana with a person THE SELF Self-concept – your knowledge, feelings, and ideas about yourself o Than your self-concept is your self-identity – how you perceive yourself and interpret events that are relevant to defining who you are o It changes with experience Example: people who experienced traumatic life event will describe predictable current selves and future selves Self – a person’s distinct individuality o Culture plays a powerful role in individual and social development o
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