Chapter 18 - CHAPTER 18 Story about Geoff the introductory...

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CHAPTER 18 Story about Geoff, the introductory student who had bipolar disorder. o He was given lithium and other medication for sleep and lithium side effects o Conclusion : the teamwork between psychologist and psychiatrists proved to be effective and Geoff’s problem was cured MENTAL DISORDER AND PSYCHOTHERAPY Mental disorders are often viewed as illnesses (physical diseases: cancer) The emergence of techniques to provide such help has become a hallmark of psychology EARLY TREATMENT OF MENTAL DISORDER Mental disorders have been with us since human existence o Paranoid schizophrenia – in the past been regarded as prophers o Patients were seen as instruments through whom gods or spirits were speaking o Patients were considered to be possessed by devil or evil spirits Trephining – a surgical procedure in which a hole is made in the skill of living person o Earliest known attempts to treat mental disorder o The opening was made to permit evil spirits to leave the victim’s head o This incision was made with a sharp-edged stone and later modified with more sophisticated instrument by Egyptians Many other painful and degrading practices were directed at people’s presumed possession by evil spirits Others rituals included beatings, starving, near drowning, and the drinking of foul-tasting concoctions Johann Wier , 16 th century physician, first to combat withchcraft o He argued that people were suffering from mental illness Mental patients were consigned to ‘asylums’ were they were inhumanely treated o They were chained and wallowed to their own excrements Many treatments were only better than the tortures designed to cure mental patients o They were tied up, doused with cold water, bled, made to vomit, spun in rotating chairs, and put on ‘tranquilizing chair’ – Benjamin Rush Philippe Pinel, French physician o he was appointed director of La Bicetre – a mental hospital in Paris o he believed most mental patient will respond well to kind treatment o the experiment was a remarkable success o mentally ill patient recovered the success of Pinel was repeated in U.S. by Dorathea Dix o he led a compaign for humane treatment of mental patients o she raised money for contruction of mental hospitals
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o in Canada, Dix was responsible for the first psychiatric hospital in Nova Scotia THE DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOTHERAPY modern treatment of mental disorder begin with Franz Anton Mesmer o an Austrian physician who practiced in Paris in the late 18 th and early 19 th century o he devised a theory of “ magnetic fluxes ” – according to which he attempted to which he attempted to effect cures by manipulating iron rods and bottles of chemicals o in reality, he hypnotized his patients and thereby eliminated some of their symptoms Jean Martin Charcot , a French neurologist o Began stud of therapeutic uses of hypnosis when one of his students hypnotized a women and induced her to display the symptoms of a
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