wk3 causation and epi studies

wk3 causation and epi studies - Epidemiology Lecture 3:...

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Lecture 3: Causation and Epidemiologic Studies Epidemiology
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Learning Outcomes Describe the key criteria to assess if a relationship is causal Describe the study types used in epidemiology Compare relative strengths and weaknesses of the various types of epidemiologic study designs
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Study Population/ Sample Exposure/Study factor: Intervention, Risk factor, Disease, Diagnostic test/technique, Environmental Exposure Outcome Unexposed Exposed Target Population Epidemiological Study Designs
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Study Type can be: Experimental Designed to evaluate intervention Researcher controls the conditions of the study and assigns exposure Observational (non-experimental) Can be used to evaluate interventions, determine effect of exposure(s) on disease, disease prognosis Exposure determine by the subjects or other factors researcher ‘observes’
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Epidemiological Study Designs Experimental Observational (Non-Experimental) Analytical Descriptive - Randomised Controlled Trials - Non- Randomised Controlled Trials - Cohort - Case Control - Analytical CS Survey - Simple Surveys - Ecological Studies - Case Series Source: Harper (1997)
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Descriptive Studies are concerned with: generating hypotheses identifying potentially new diseases, symptoms, and possible ways of treating or preventing health conditions. estimating the magnitude of a disease or health event estimating the current burden of disease or future burden eg proportion of population with diabetes now or proportion who will get the diabetes over the next few years incidence and prevalence
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Analytical Studies are concerned with: concerned with testing hypothesis of association and causality ask specific questions identify determinants of or risk factors for health problems assess whether an intervention works
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Descriptive Studies: Case Case Report – is a single report of a new condition or interesting or unusual presentation of symptoms or report of how a condition was treated and the outcome of the treatment
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Fatal fulminant hepatic failure induced by a natural therapy containing kava : Gow et al MJA 2003; 178 (9): 442-443 In July 2002, a 56-year-old woman was referred to the Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Melbourne, for investigation of jaundice. She had been previously well. Over the preceding three months she had been taking a herbal supplement for anxiety , prescribed and provided by a naturopath (Kava 1800 Plus, Eagle Pharmaceuticals, Castle Hill, NSW; one tablet thrice daily, labelled as containing kavalactones 60 mg, Passiflora incarnata 50 mg and Scutellaria laterifloria 100 mg). Examination on presentation to hospital revealed the
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course HIMT 3055 taught by Professor J during the Three '08 term at University of Sydney.

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wk3 causation and epi studies - Epidemiology Lecture 3:...

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