Psychology lecture notes week 8, measurements

Psychology lecture notes week 8, measurements - I...

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I. Norm-Referenced Measurement 1. Definition - In norm-referenced testing an examinee's performance is compared with the performance of a specific group. A raw score alone tells us nothing. What does saying someone got 17 out of 20 right mean. This allows us to compare a person's score with the typical performance of a group, usually one representative of the population of the country. Then we know how someone is performing compared to other kids their age. 2. Representativeness - This is extent norm group is characteristic of the population. Should match as closely as possible demographics of population. Usually use age, grade level, gender, geographic region, ethnicity, race, and SES. 3. Size - Should be large enough to insure stability of test scores and inclusion of all groups that are represented in population. Should include at least 100 subjects at each age and grade level. 4. Relevance - What is the norm group you are selecting? National norms are usually used in IQ tests. For educational achievement, local norms may be more appropriate. May want to compare only against their race or ethnic background. Depends on what you want to use the results for. II. Derived Scores 1. Age and Grade Equivalent Scores - This is arrived at by determining the average performance of children at an age or grade. You therefore find out at what age or grade the average child got the score of the examinee and that is their age or grade score. It does not mean that a child is functioning at that level. Grade scores should never be used. They are too misleading. 2. Ratio IQ - This is the first way that IQ's were calculated. It is MA/CA x 100. This generally is not used anymore and if you see a test that uses this procedure you should question its utility. 3. Percentile Ranks - Allows us to determine an individual's position relative to the standardization sample. It is the point in the distribution at or below which that percentage of individuals fall. They are easy for people to understand, especially parents. 4. Standard Scores - The deviation IQ is a version of a standard score. These are raw scores that have been transformed to have a given mean and standard deviation. They express how far an individual's score lies from the mean in terms of the standard deviation. III. Reliability 1. Definition - Reliability refers to the stability of measurement. That is, it is reproducible and stable. It is expressed by a reliability (correlation) coefficient (range 0 to 1.0). A test should not be trusted if its reliability is low. Generally a reliability of .80 or higher is considered acceptable.
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  • Fall '11
  • Staff
  • Psychology, Intelligence quotient, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, IQ test measure

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