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Unformatted text preview: or ground stations for OTH detection Sky Wave Sky Wave Frequency also important – Critical frequency is minimum frequency that will penetrate ionosphere at vertical incidence At other angles, wave is refracted back Skip zone Space Wave Space Wave Above 30 MHz, ionosphere will not refract EM waves back toward earth – Essentially no ground wave propagation – Space waves not refracted/reflected by ionosphere – The higher the frequency, the less susceptible to refraction Energy tends to travel in straight line Space Wave Space Wave Other Effects Other Effects Ionospheric scatter – Propagati...
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