lecture-1 - CPSC 324 Topics in Java Programming Lecture 1...

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Unformatted text preview: 1/13/10 CPSC 324 Topics in Java Programming Lecture 1:  Course Overview and  Introduction to Java Agenda •  Course overview •  Introduction to Java –  Brief history, features, some language basics … •  Reading Assignments –  Core: Ch. 1 –  Style: Ch. 1-2 •  Homework Assignment #0 •  Extra Credit CPSC 324 ‐‐ Spring 2010 2 1 1/13/10 About this Course Instructor: –  Shawn Bowers •  Email: [email protected] •  Office: 309C Herak •  Office Hours: M/Tu/Th/F 1:30pm–2:30pm (or by appt.) * MAY CHANGE Course webpage: –  –  Check often -- updated frequently Course email list: –  –  This is a Google group that you need to sign up for Blackboard: –  –  Used for posting grades CPSC 324 ‐‐ Spring 2010 3 About this Course Required Textbooks: Core Java,Volume 1 - Fundamentals, Horstmann and Cornell, Eighth Edition, Prentice Hall PTR, 2007 The Elements of Java Style, Vermeulen, Ambler, Bumgardner, Metz, Misfeldt, and Shur, Cambridge University Press, 2000 •  Other material used as references for this course: java.sun.com java.sun.com/docs/books/tutorial/ Effec%ve Java Block Addison‐Wesley, 2008 CPSC 324 ‐‐ Spring 2010 Java Generics & Collec%ons NaGalin, Wadler. O’Reilly, 2006 Head First Java Bates, Sierra. O’Reilly, 2005 4 2 1/13/10 About this Course This course is all about the Java language and platform! Syntax & semantics, libraries, OOP, GUIs, JVM, and more if time Grading: –  –  –  –  –  (35%) (15%) (10%) (20%) (20%) Assignments Group project Class participation, Quizzes/Exercises Midterm Final  Letter grades (A+/-: 100-90%, B+/-: 89-80%, etc.) … exact break points based on overall class results Extra credit opportunities CPSC 324 ‐‐ Spring 2010 5 General Course Topics Basic Java Programming Constructs Objects/Classes, Inheritance, and Basic Object‐Oriented Programming in Java Advanced Language Constructs (Interfaces, CollecSons, Inner Classes, …) Java Tools/Apps Java Libraries Graphical User Interfaces (Swing, Event Handling, GUI Widgets, etc.) Timeline Developing ApplicaSons in Java (Build, Deploy, Test) Group Project Advanced Java Programming (SerializaSon, Threads, Networking, …) CPSC 324 ‐‐ Spring 2010 6 3 1/13/10 About this Course Reading assignments: –  Due before next class period Homework & project assignments: –  Programming assignments (done individually) –  Group assignment (Java technology “tutorial”) –  Group programming project (within a group) •  Develop an end-to-end Java application –  Please turn in assignments by the due date (see syllabus) Exams and quizzes: –  Open book and open notes –  Midterm and final –  Short quizzes at the beginning of classes CPSC 324 ‐‐ Spring 2010 7 About this Course Attendance: –  Participation is an important part of this course –  4 absences without prior arrangement will lower your grade by one letter (as will each subsequent 2 absences) ➪ Unless your sick (especially if it resembles the flu!!!), then please stay home! Academic Honesty: –  You are expected to follow the CS Department Policy –  Assignments, exams, quizzes done individually (unless stated otherwise) –  Group projects to be done by the group –  Please ask if you have questions or concerns CPSC 324 ‐‐ Spring 2010 8 4 1/13/10 About this Course No classes: –  Thursday, January 21 –  Tuesday & Thursday, March 9 & 11 (Spring break) Midterm and Final: –  Midterm -- Thursday, February 25 (tentative) –  Final -- Wednesday, May 5 (3:30-5:30) Be sure to carefully read the syllabus CPSC 324 ‐‐ Spring 2010 9 A Note on Quizzes The goal of quizzes is to –  give you a feel for the types of questions I ask on exams –  give me feedback on your understanding of material –  help you better understand material •  The main way to do well on quizzes is to take them! –  you shouldn’t need to “cram” for quizzes –  you should be sure you understand prior lecture’s material CPSC 324 ‐‐ Spring 2010 10 5 1/13/10 Lets get started … •  Quiz #1 •  Homework #0 •  Extra Credit •  Super quick overview of Java •  Start on language basics CPSC 324 ‐‐ Spring 2010 11 Some Java History •  Started within Sun circa 1991 –  Led by James Gosling among others •  Initial goals –  A language to run on “devices” –  This means limited memory and power –  So had to be small and run on multiple architectures (CPUs) –  A similar syntax as C++ toaster “of the future” original *7 (Java‐enabled, fancy remote control) CPSC 324 ‐‐ Spring 2010 12 6 1/13/10 Some Java History •  Adopted virtual machines for multiple architectures –  Source code is typically compiled into an architecturespecific (assembly) language –  Java source code is compiled into an intermediate language called “bytecode” –  Each architecture has a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) –  A device’s JVM “runs” bytecode … more on this later –  Enables program “portability” CPSC 324 ‐‐ Spring 2010 13 Note: For a .class file you can view the bytecode by running “javap ‐c TheClass” Some Java History •  The Java Virtual Machine public class HelloWorld { public staSc void main(String args) { System.out.println(“Hello World!”); } } .java source code Write once, run anywhere vs. Write once, compile everywhere Compiler (javac) JVM (java) Code: 0: getstaSc #2; //Field java/ lang/System.out:Ljava/io/PrintStream; 3: ldc #3; //String Hello World! 5: invokevirtual #4; //Method j .class file (bytecode) CPSC 324 ‐‐ Spring 2010 JVM (java) 14 7 1/13/10 “duke” the mascot Some Java History •  Java gained popularity mainly because of the Web –  Around 1994 Java “applets” were created –  Allowed Java programs to be run in web pages –  This made Java pretty cool •  Java 1.0 released in 1996 •  Later releases –  Incrementally improved language –  And size of libraries •  We’ll be using Java 6 (1.6) –  Java 7 upcoming … CPSC 324 ‐‐ Spring 2010 15 The Java Platform •  Java is both a Language and a Platform –  Really, the JVM is “the platform” –  Ideally, any language could be compiled to bytecode –  Several bytecode compilers exist E.g., Ruby, Python, JavaScript, Ada, C, PHP, Scala, … Also Java-based scripting languages (Groovy, JavaFX) We’ll talk more about the JVM and some of these later CPSC 324 ‐‐ Spring 2010 16 8 1/13/10 Java’s Popularity •  Java has a many standard and 3rd party libraries –  Generally easy to install and use in applications (jars) –  Standard libs for data structures, XML, security, networking, GUIs, … •  Java is used for a wide range of applications –  Embedded devices and phones –  Back-end servers (web servers and applications) –  Enterprise applications (networking, databases) –  Desktop applications •  Unlike other languages, Java technology was/is free to use –  Encouraged developers and companies to adopt Java –  Java itself is also now free, open-sourced (GPL) CPSC 324 ‐‐ Spring 2010 17 Java as a Programming Language •  A lot like C++ –  Has a very similar syntax –  Object oriented (classes, inheritance, etc.) –  Statically typed (type checking at compile-time) •  Some differences –  Garbage collection (more on this later) –  Pointers are “hidden” in Java –  Rich set of “standard” libraries (classes, packages) –  Simpler in many ways than C++ (including the object model) –  Portability (plus the Java Framework) –  Various “newer” language features CPSC 324 ‐‐ Spring 2010 18 9 1/13/10 Java as a Programming Language 1954 1957 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 PostScript 1982 FIG-Forth 1978 Forth 1968 FORTRAN I october 1956 FORTRAN II 1957 FORTRAN III end-1958 Object Logo 1986 FORTRAN IV (Fortran 66 ANS) 1966 FORTRAN IV 1962 TELCOMP 1965 COBOL 61 Extended 1962 PL/M 1972 Modula 1975 JOVIAL I 1960 BCPL july 1967 JOVIAL II 1961 B 1969 Simula 67 1967 ALGOL W 1966 GOGOL III 1967 GOGOL 1964 ISWIM 1966 C with Classes april 1980 Smalltalk-74 1974 ANSI C (C89) 1989 ISO C (C95) april 1, 1996 sed 1973 Sail 1968 LiveScript 1995 Cmm 1992 Mainsail 1975 awk 1978 Eiffel 1986 nawk 1985 KRC 1981 csh october 1978 SASL 1976 Eiffel 2 1988 Perl 2.000 january 5, 1988 Eiffel 3 1993 PHP/FI 1995 Sather 1.0 mid-1994 Perl 4.000 march 21, 1991 Perl 3.000 october 18, 1989 1980 SNOBOL 2 april 1964 SNOBOL 4 1967 SNOBOL 3 1965 Caml 1987 1985 Eiffel 4 december 11, 1996 Sather 1.1 september 1995 FIG-Forth 1978 Object Logo 1986 Sather 1.2.1 november 4, 1999 Perl 5.005_50 july 26, 1998 Visual Basic 3.0 june 93 O’Caml 1.0.7 december 11, 1997 Visual Basic 5.0 april 1997 Visual Basic 4.0 september 1995 Haskell 1.3 may 1996 Haskell 1.2 march 1992 SML ‘90 1990 Caml 2-6.1 1991 Haskell 1.4 april 1997 Rex 1.00 may 1979 Ada 1979 Rex 2.00 1980 Rex 3.00 1982 Modula 2 1979 Rexx 3.20 1984 Pascal AFNOR 1983 Smalltalk-78 1978 csh october 1978 5 6 Icon 1977 Java 2 (v1.4.1_02) february 27, 2003 Java 2 (v1.4.2) april 29, 2003 C# 3.0 (beta) september 2005 Python 2.6.3 october 2, 2009 Java 2 (v1.4.2_01) august 26, 2003 Ruby 1.8 august 4, 2003 PHP 4.2.2 july 22, 2002 PHP 4.2.3 september 6, 2002 Java 2 (v1.5.0) (beta 1) february 5, 2004 Java 2 (v1.4.2_03) Java 2 (v1.4.2_04) december 13, 2003 march 8, 2004 Ruby 1.8.1 december 25, 2003 O’Caml 3.03 dec 10, 2001 O’Caml 3.04 dec 12, 2001 O’Caml 3.05 july 29, 2002 Java 2 (v5.0) (beta 2) june 28, 2004 Java 2 (v1.4.2_05) june 30, 2004 Java 2 (v5.0) september 30, 2004 Java 2 (v1.4.2_06) november 23, 2004 Java 2 (v5.0 update 3) april 28, 2005 PHP 4.3.1 feb. 17, 2003 PHP 4.3.3 august 25, 2003 PHP 4.3.2 may 29, 2003 Perl 5.8.1 september 26, 2003 O’Caml 3.06 august 20, 2002 PHP 4.3.4 november 3, 2003 Perl 5.8.2 november 5, 2003 PHP 4.3.5 march 26, 2004 Perl 5.8.3 january 1, 2004 PHP 4.3.6 april 15, 2004 PHP 4.3.7 june 3, 2004 Perl 5.8.4 april 23, 2004 O’Caml 3.07 september 29, 2003 PHP 4.3.8 july 13, 2004 PHP 5.0.0 july 13, 2004 Perl 5.8.5 july 21, 2004 O’Caml 3.08.0 july 13, 2004 ECMA Eiffel june 2005 PHP 4.3.10 december 15, 2004 PHP 5.0.3 december 15, 2004 Perl 5.8.6 november 30, 2004 PHP 5.0.4 april 3, 2005 Java 6 update 7 july 11, 2008 Java 6 update 11 december 2, 2008 Java 6 update 14 june 10, 2009 C++0x draft 2008 Java 2 (v5.0 update 16) july 11, 2008 Java 2 (v1.4.2_18) Ruby 1.8.7 july 11, 2008 may 31, 2008 Java 2 (v5.0 update 12) may 31, 2007 Ruby 1.8.6 march 13, 2007 Ruby 1.8.5 august 25, 2006 Ruby 1.8.4 december 24, 2005 Java 6 update 2 july 5, 2007 Java 6 december 11, 2006 Java 2 (v5.0 update 8) august 11, 2006 Ruby 1.8.3 september 21, 2005 Ruby 1.8.2 december 25, 2004 Self 4.2.1 april 3, 2004 PHP 4.3.0 december 27, 2002 Perl 5.8.0 july 18, 2002 O’Caml 3.02 july 30, 2001 Java 2 (v1.4.2_02) october 22, 2003 Self 4.1.6 september 2002 PHP 4.2.0 april 22, 2002 PHP 4.1.0 december 8, 2001 Perl 5.7,0 september 2, 2000 C# 3.0 november 19, 2007 Objective-C 2.0 august 7, 2006 Java 2 (v6.0 beta) december 2004 Java 2 (v1.4.1_03) june 11, 2003 Ruby 1.6.8 december 24, 2002 Java 2 (v5.0 update 17) december 2, 2008 Java 2 (v1.4.2_19) december 2, 2008 Objective-C 2.1 august 28, 2009 Java 6 update 16 august 11, 2009 C++1x draft july 22, 2009 Java 2 (v5.0 update 18) march 24, 2009 Java 2 (v5.0 update 21) september 11, 2009 Ruby 1.9.2 preview 1 july 18, 2009 Ruby 1.9.1 january 30, 2009 Self 4.3 june 30, 2006 PHP 4.4.1 october 31, 2005 PHP 5.0.5 september 6, 2005 Perl 5.8.7 june 3, 2005 PHP 4.4.2 january 13, 2006 PHP 5.1.0 november 24, 2005 O’Caml 3.08.2 november 2004 PHP 4.4.7 may 3, 2007 PHP 4.4.4 august 17, 2006 PHP 5.1.6 august 24, 2006 Perl 5.8.8 february 2, 2006 PHP 5.2.0 november 2, 2006 PHP 5.2.3 may 31, 2007 PHP 4.4.9 august 7, 2008 PHP 4.4.8 january 3, 2008 PHP 5.2.4 august 30, 2007 PHP 5.2.5 november 9, 2007 Perl 5.10 december 18, 2007 O’Caml 3.10.0 may 16, 2007 O’Caml 3.09.2 april 14, 2006 Scheme R6RS (draft) september 14, 2006 Haskell 98 (revised) december 2002 PHP 5.2.6 may 1, 2008 O’Caml 3.10.2 february 29, 2008 PHP 5.2.7 december 4, 2008 PHP 5.2.8 december 8, 2008 PHP 5.2.9 february 26, 2009 PHP 5.3 june 30, 2009 Perl 5.11.0 october 2, 2009 O’Caml 3.11.1 june 12, 2009 O’Caml 3.11.0 december 4, 2008 Scheme R6RS august 28, 2007 Haskell 2010 (announced) november 2009 2000 PostScript level 3 september 11, 1996 M 1994 Prolog IV 1997 K 1996 M ANSI dec 8, 1995 Delphi march 2, 1995 APL96 1996 Python 1.5.2 april 13, 1999 LiveScript 1995 Eiffel 2 1988 Sather 1.0 mid-1994 Sather 0.1 june 1991 Perl 4.000 march 21, 1991 Scheme 84 1984 Haskell 1.0 1987 SML 1984 Perl 5.000 october 18, 1994 CPSC 324 ‐‐ Spring 2010 Visual Basic 1.0 may 20, 1991 Clos 1989 ECMAScript june 1997 Visual Basic 2.0 march 1992 Visual Basic 3.0 june 93 PHP/FI 1995 Eiffel 4 december 11, 1996 Sather 1.1 september 1995 19 JavaScript 2.0 (draft 1) february 18, 1999 JavaScript 1.5 C++98 ANSI/ISO 1998 Java 2 (v1.2) december 8, 1998 Ruby 1.1 alpha 0 august 13, 1997 ECMAScript ed3 december 1999 Eiffel 4.2 february 6, 1998 PHP 3.0 june 6, 1998 PHP 2.0 nov. 13, 1997 Sather 1.2.1 november 4, 1999 Perl 5.005_50 july 26, 1998 Objective Caml 1996 O’Caml 1.0.7 december 11, 1997 Visual Basic 5.0 april 1997 Visual Basic 4.0 september 1995 Caml 1987 Haskell 1.3 may 1996 Haskell 1.2 march 1992 SML ‘90 1990 Caml 2-6.1 1991 Haskell 1.4 april 1997 O O’Caml 2 1998 Visual Basic 6.0 june 16, 1998 Scheme R5RS 1998 SML ‘97 1997 Haskell 98 february 1999 Caml 3.1 1993 Writing Java can be easy -- Exercise In groups of 2-3, try to guess what these statements do int size = 27; declares an integer variable named ‘size’ with value 27 String name = “Fido”; Dog myDog = new Dog(name, size); int x = size – 5; if(x < 15) myDog.bark(8); while(x > 3) { myDog.play(); x = x – 1; } System.out.print(“Hello ” + name); // TODO: add more stuff CPSC 324 ‐‐ Spring 2010 m Pe march Common Lisp ANSI december 8, 1994 Scheme IEEE 1990 Haskell 1.1 april 1, 1990 J Ruby 1.3.2 april 2, 1999 ANSI Smalltalk may 19, 1998 Self 4.0 july 10, 1995 Eiffel 3 1993 Perl 3.000 october 18, 1989 JavaScript december 1995 Ruby 0.95 december 1995 Self ISO C (C99) december 1, 1999 JScript may 1996 Java 1 may 23, 1995 Smalltalk-80 1980 Perl 2.000 january 5, 1988 NetRexx 1.150 july 23, 1999 ISO C (C95) april 1, 1996 ISO C (C90) december 15, 1990 Cmm 1992 Modula-2 ISO Generic Extension december 19, 1998 Modula-2 ISO june 1, 1996 Ada 95 1995 Ruby february 24, 1993 Perl 1.000 december 18, 1987 Delphi 5 august, 1999 OO COBOL 1997 Object Rexx february 25, 1997 Oberon-2 1991 ARM C++ 1989 Eiffel 1986 M ISO 1999 Open M dec 11, 1995 Python 1991 NetRexx 1991 ANSI C (C89) 1989 nawk 1985 Tcl/Tk 8.2.3 dec. 16, 1999 Fortran 95 ISO december 15, 1997 A+ 1992 MUMPS ISO 1992 Oberon 1987 Common Lisp 1984 Scheme MIT 1978 Delphi 2010 august 2009 Python 3.1 june 27, 2009 Python 2.6.2 april 14, 2009 Python 2.6.1 december 4, 2008 ANSI Rexx C++ july 1983 Miranda 1982 Tcl/Tk 8.5.7 april 15, 2009 Python 3.0.1 february 13, 2009 Python 3.0 december 3, 2008 Python 2.6 october 1, 2008 Tcl/Tk 8.1 april 1999 Ada ISO 1987 KRC 1981 2009 Tcl/Tk 8.5.6 january 2009 Tcl/Tk 8.5.5 october 15, 2008 Delphi 2009 august 2008 Python 3.0a2 december 7, 2007 Ada 2005 march 9, 2007 C# 2.0 november 2005 Oak june 1991 awk 1978 2008 Tcl/Tk 8.5 december 20, 2007 Python 2.5.1 april 19, 2007 Ada 2006 (draft) 2005 C++03 ISO/IEC 2003 ECMAScript ed4 (draft) 2002 Java 2 (v1.4.1) september 2002 Self 4.1 august 7, 2001 ISE Eiffel 5 2001 PHP 4.0 may 22, 2000 Java 2 (v1.4.0_01) june 4, 2002 Ruby 1.6.7 march 1, 2002 Cedar 1983 alltalk-76 1976 Tcl/Tk 8.4.15 may 25, 2007 Delphi 2007 march 2007 Python 2.5 september 19, 2006 Python 2.4.2 september 28, 2005 Tcl/Tk end 1988 Borland Turbo Pascal Object Pascal 1985 Classic C Mesa 1977 2007 Tcl/Tk 8.4.14 october 19, 2006 Tcl/Tk 8.4.13 april 19, 2006 Delphi 2006 october 30, 2005 Python 2.4.1 march 30, 2005 VB.NET (Visual Basic 7.0) 2001 Objective-C 1983 SASL 1976 JavaScript 2.0 (draft 4) april 26, 2002 Java 2 (v1.4) early access february 6, 2002 Haskell 98 february 1999 Modula 3 1988 Ada 83 ANSI january 1983 C with Classes april 1980 Tcl/Tk 8.4.12 december 6, 2005 M ISO january 6, 2005 C# 2.0 (beta) july 2003 C# (ISO) march 28, 2003 Ruby 1.6.5 september 19, 2001 Ruby 1.6.1 september 27, 2000 O’Caml 3.00 june 2000 Visual Basic 6.0 june 16, 1998 J 1990 Concurrent C 1984 C (K&R) 1978 2006 Tcl/Tk 8.4.11 june 28, 2005 Tcl/Tk 8.4.9 december 7, 2004 Delphi 2005 november 2004 Python 2.4 november 30, 2004 1995 ABC 1987 COBOL 85 ISO/ANSI 1985 Tcl/Tk 8.4.8 nov. 22, 2004 Tcl/Tk 8.4.7 july 25, 2004 Python 2.3.4 may 27, 2004 Python 2.3.3 december 19, 2003 JScript Java 2 (v1.3) may 8, 2000 Perl 5.6.0 march 28, 2000 O’Caml 2 1998 Scheme R5RS 1998 SML ‘97 1997 A 1988 MUMPS (FIPS) 1986 APL 2 august 1984 B 1981 Python 2.3.2 october 3, 2003 ISO Forth 1997 Tcl mid 1988 Prolog III 1984 Sharp APL Python 2.3.1 september 23, 2003 Caml 3.1 1993 Fortran 90 ISO 1991 Prolog II october 1982 2005 PostScript level 3 v 3017 september 11, 2005 Tcl/Tk 8.4.6 march 1, 2004 Tcl/Tk 8.4.5 november 24, 2003 Python 2.3 july 29, 2003 PostScript level 2 1992 FORTRAN V (Fortran 77 ANSI) april 1978 MUMPS (ANSI) september 15, 1977 2004 Tcl/Tk 8.4.4 july 22, 2003 Fortran 2003 november 30, 2004 Python 2.2.3 may 30, 2003 Python 2.3a2 february 19, 2003 Common Lisp ANSI december 8, 1994 Scheme IEEE 1990 Haskell 1.1 april 1, 1990 OO Forth 1987 ANS Forth 1986 Forth-83 1983 ECMAScript ed3 december 1999 Ruby 1.3.2 april 2, 1999 Eiffel 4.2 february 6, 1998 PHP 3.0 june 6, 1998 PHP 2.0 nov. 13, 1997 Perl 5.000 october 18, 1994 Visual Basic 2.0 march 1992 Python 2.2.2 october 14, 2002 1990 PostScript 1982 /1 ANS 976 Haskell 1.0 1987 SML 1984 Icon 1977 Java 2 (v1.2) december 8, 1998 Ruby 1.1 alpha 0 august 13, 1997 Objective Caml 1996 Scheme 84 1984 Scheme MIT 1978 SL5 1976 Visual Basic 1.0 may 20, 1991 Clos 1989 Common Lisp 1984 Scheme 1975 ML 1973 SNOBOL 1962 Tcl/Tk 8.4.3 may 20, 2003 Delphi 8 november 2003 Python 2.2.1 april 10, 2002 Python 2.2 december 21, 2001 C# (ECMA) december 13, 2001 C# june 26, 2000 ANSI Smalltalk may 19, 1998 Self 4.0 july 10, 1995 Self Sather 0.1 june 1991 Perl 1.000 december 18, 1987 Miranda 1982 MS Basic 2.0 july 1975 Lisp 1.5 1962 Lisp 1 1959 Tcl/Tk 8.4.2 march 3, 2003 Delphi 7 august 6, 2002 Python 2.1 april 17, 2001 JavaScript 2.0 (draft 1) february 18, 1999 JavaScript 1.5 C++98 ANSI/ISO 1998 ECMAScript june 1997 Ruby 0.95 december 1995 sh 1969 BASIC may 1, 1964 Lisp 1958 Languages december 9, 2009 ! Éric Lévénez 1999-2009 < ; ISO C (C99) december 1, 1999 JScript may 1996 JavaScript december 1995 Java 1 may 23, 1995 Ruby february 24, 1993 Smalltalk-80 1980 Smalltalk-78 1978 Python 2.0 october 16, 2000 Modula-2 ISO Generic Extension december 19, 1998 NetRexx 1.150 july 23, 1999 ISO C (C90) december 15, 1990 ARM C++ 1989 C++ july 1983 Cedar 1983 Smalltalk-76 1976 Python 1.6 september 5, 2000 COBOL 2002 ISO/ANSI december 2002 Modula-2 ISO june 1, 1996 Ada 95 1995 Oak june 1991 Mesa 1977 Smalltalk-72 1972 Smalltalk 1971 Tcl/Tk 8.4.1 Tcl/Tk 8.4 october 22, 2002 september 10, 2002 Fortran 2000 (draft) september 30, 2002 Delphi 6 may 1, 2001 Delphi 5 august, 1999 OO COBOL 1997 Object Rexx february 25, 1997 ANSI Rexx Classic C CLU 1974 ALGOL 68 december 1968 2003 PostScript level 3 v 3016 2003 M ISO 1999 Open M dec 11, 1995 APL96 1996 Python 1.5.2 april 13, 1999 NetRexx 1991 Objective-C 1983 CORAL 66 1966 Simula I 1964 ALGOL 60 1960 2002 Tcl/Tk 8.3 october 22, 2001 Prolog IV 1997 K 1996 M ANSI dec 8, 1995 Delphi march 2, 1995 Oberon-2 1991 Oberon 1987 Ada ISO 1987 Concurrent C 1984 C (K&R) 1978 C 1971 Rexx 3.20 1984 Pascal AFNOR 1983 Ada 83 ANSI january 1983 JOVIAL 3 1965 CORAL 64 1964 ALGOL 58 1958 Rex 3.00 1982 2000 Tcl/Tk 8.2.3 dec. 16, 1999 Tcl/Tk 8.1 april 1999 Fortran 95 ISO december 15, 1997 M 1994 Python 1991 Borland Turbo Pascal Object Pascal 1985 A+ 1992 MUMPS ISO 1992 Modula 3 1988 ABC 1987 COBOL 85 ISO/ANSI 1985 PostScript level 3 september 11, 1996 ISO Forth 1997 J 1990 MUMPS (FIPS) 1986 APL 2 august 1984 Modula 2 1979 Ada 1979 PL/1 ANS 1976 CPL 1963 JOVIAL 1959 IAL 1958 Rex 2.00 1980 Rex 1.00 may 1979 Pascal 1970 PL/I 1964 1995 PostScript level 2 1992 Tcl/Tk end 1988 Fortran 90 ISO 1991 Sharp APL MUMPS (ANSI) september 15, 1977 COBOL 74 ANSI 1974 COBOL 68 ANS 1968 COBOL 1965 A 1988 Prolog III 1984 Prolog II october 1982 MUMPS 1966 B 1981 COBOL 61...
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