STAT
lecture1

lecture1 - Handout 1 Basic Denitions Samples and...

• 6

This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

Handout 1: Basic Definitions, Samples and Populations, and Sampling Methods Reading Assignment: Sections 1.1, 1.2, Chapter 2 Statistics v. statistics Statistics (capital ‘S’) is a collection of techniques and procedures for analyzing data. These techniques and procedures are used to help people make decisions when faced with uncertainty. The numbers we calculate from data to make summaries, estimations, predictions, etc. are statistics (lower-case ‘s’). Think of statistics you have calculated or seen before and list them below (for instance batting average). Many see Statistics as a Mathematics course, but it is important to understand the difference. While mathematical concepts are used, Statistics is a distinct scientific field. We use math in order to allow us to make sense of and draw meaningful conclusions from data. Data Any characteristic that can differ from one individual to the next is called a variable . We call variables that are measured, or somehow determined, and collected on a number of individuals data . Often, we organize data into a dataset , a row-and-column display (think spreadsheet). Sometimes, these individuals are called subjects or observations to give them a more specific branding - we might call measurements on an individual person from a subject while measurements collected on an individual factory an observation . The figure below displays ten subjects (students) who filled out the ‘Getting to Know You’ Survey and is organized into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Variables are of one of two main types, categorical or numerical. Each of these variable types can also be separated even further, as seen in the figure below. Data that consist of groups are known as categorical data while data that measure a ‘quantity’ (e.g. how much, how many) are numerical data . Sometimes, categorical data may be coded as numbers (e.g. male = 0 and female = 1), but this data is still categorical. What level of data are the variables in the Excel spreadsheet? 1

This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Also, place additional examples of the measurement levels of data in the figure below.
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

• As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

• I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

• The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern