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Unformatted text preview: 3-13-08 Mary Rothbert (1981) Three underlying components of temperament: o Emotion o Attention o Action Measuring Temperament o Behavior: Parent interviews and questionnaires Behavior ratings by medical professionals or caregivers Direct researcher observation o Physiological Reactions Heart rate Hormone levels EEG waves in the frontal cortex Temperamental Styles: o Inhibited, or shy, children o Uninhibited, or sociable, child Biological Basis for Temperament o Inhibited (shy) May react negatively, or withdraw from a new stimuli High heart rates, stress hormones and stress symptoms Higher right hemisphere frontal cortex activity o Uninhibited (sociable) React positively Low heart rates, stress hormones, and stress symptoms Higher left hemisphere frontal cortex activity Goodness-of-fit model o An effective match between child-rearing environments and a child's temperament o Care giving is not just responsive to the child's temperament; it also depends on life conditions and cultural values Genetic Influences: o Twin studies reveal that identical twins are more similar than fraternal twins across a wide range of temperamental traits and personality measures o Personality has roots in temperament, but is more global and dependent on interactions Stability of Temperament o Temperamental stability from one age period to the next is generally low to moderate o Temperament itself develops with age; early behaviors reorganize into new, more complex systems o Long-term prediction from early temperament is best achieve from the second year of life and after o Experience can modify biologically-based temperamental traits o Temperament is also affected by environmental factors o Parents may encourage a son to be more physically active, while a daughter may be encouraged to seek help and physical closeness ...
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- Spring '08