Lecture9

# Lecture9 - Algorithms in Systems Engineering ISE 172...

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Algorithms in Systems Engineering ISE 172 Lecture 9 Dr. Ted Ralphs

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ISE 172 Lecture 9 1 References for Today’s Lecture Required reading Chapter 5 References CLRS Section 11.1, Chapter 12 D.E. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming, Volume 3: Sorting and Searching (Third Edition), 1998. R. Sedgewick, Algorithms in C++ (Third Edition), 1998.
ISE 172 Lecture 9 2 Symbol Tables and Dictionaries We have now discussed in detail the ADT for a list and have seen two implementations, as well as other data structures built on lists. We now consider a different kind of list data structure that supports different kinds of operations. A symbol table is a data structure for storing a list of items, each with a key and satellite data . This data structure supports the following basic operations. Construct a symbol table. Search for an item (or items) having a specified key. Insert an item. Remove a specified item. Count the number of items. Print the list of items. Symbol tables are also called dictionaries because of the obvious comparison with looking up entries in a dictionary. Note that the keys may not have an ordering.

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ISE 172 Lecture 9 3 Additional Operations on Symbol Tables If the items can be ordered, e.g., by lt and eq , we may support the following additional operations. Sort the items (print them in sorted order). Return the maximum or minimum item. Select the k th item. Return the successor or predecessor of a given item. We may also want to be able to join two symbol tables into one. These operations may or may not be supported in various implementations.
ISE 172 Lecture 9 4 Applications of Symbol Tables What are some applications of symbol tables?

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ISE 172 Lecture 9 5 Dictionary ADT class Dictionary: def __init__() def __getitem__(key) def __setitem__(key, value) def __delitem__(key) def __contains__(key) def __len__() def get() def keys() def values() def items() def sort()
ISE 172 Lecture 9 6 Implementation Consider a list of items whose keys are small positive integers. Assuming no duplicate keys, we can implement such a symbol table using an unordered list. class Dictionary: def __init__(self, maxKey): self.list = [None for i in range(maxKey)] self.maxKey = maxKey def append(self, key, value): self.list[key] = value def remove(key): self.list[key] = None def __contains__(key) if self.list[key] = None: return False else: return True

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ISE 172 Lecture 9 7 Implementation (cont.) def __getitem__(self, key): for i in self.list: if i != None: key -= 1 if key == 0: return self.list[i] def sort(self): pass def __len__(self): count = 0 for i in self.list if i != None: count += 1 return count
ISE 172 Lecture 9 8 Arbitrary Keys Note that with arrays, most operations are constant time.

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