11-Datacommunication - DATA COMMUNICATION(Basics of data communication OSI layers K.K.DHUPAR SDE(NP-II ALTTC ALTTC\/NP\/KKD\/Data Communication 1 Data

11-Datacommunication - DATA COMMUNICATION(Basics of data...

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ALTTC/NP/KKD/Data Communication 1 K.K.DHUPAR SDE (NP-II) ALTTC DATA COMMUNICATION (Basics of data communication, OSI layers.)
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ALTTC/NP/KKD/Data Communication 2 Data Communications History •1838: Samuel Morse & Alfred Veil Invent Morse Code Telegraph System •1876: Alexander Graham Bell invented Telephone •1910:Howard Krum developed Start/Stop Synchronisation
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ALTTC/NP/KKD/Data Communication 3 History of Computing • 1930: Development of ASCII Transmission Code • 1945: Allied Governments develop the First Large Computer • 1950: IBM releases its first computer IBM 710 • 1960: IBM releases the First Commercial Computer IBM 360
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ALTTC/NP/KKD/Data Communication 4 Main Contributors of Data Comm. • Transmission Technology • Packet Switching Technology • Internet – 1967: ARPANET by Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) of U.S. – 1975: TCP/IP protocol • LAN Technology – DIX-Ethernet & IEEE 802 Networks • WAN – 1976: ISO releases HDLC & CCITT releases X.25 (PSPDN)
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ALTTC/NP/KKD/Data Communication 5 Various Networks • Home Area Network (HAN) • Local Area Network (LAN) • Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) • Wide Area Network (WAN) • Global Area Network (GAN)
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ALTTC/NP/KKD/Data Communication 6 Voice & Data • In 70’s & 80’s main thrust in Wide Area Networking (WAN) was to put Data on Voice Circuits using Modem & on ISDN lines • In 90’s the trend is reverse. Major Efforts were on putting Voice Over Data using: –Voice Over Frame Relay –Voice Over Internet –Voice Over ATM etc
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ALTTC/NP/KKD/Data Communication 7 What is Data Communications? •Exchange of digital information between two digital devices is data communication
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ALTTC/NP/KKD/Data Communication 8 Networking • Networking is the convenient way of making information accessible to anyone, anytime & anywhere. • Evolution of Networking – Computers handling Large Data were developed • viz. text, graphics,animation, sound & video – Improvements in Personal Computers • Small, powerful & cheap user friendly systems. – Emergence of Computer Networks • Distributed, Intelligent, High-speed LAN/WAN
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ALTTC/NP/KKD/Data Communication 9 What is Interoperability ? • The Capability of two or more computers of different vendors to transmit & receive data and to carry out processes as expected by the user is called Interoperability. IBM Computer AT &T Computer
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ALTTC/NP/KKD/Data Communication 10 Requirements of Data Communications At least Two Devices ready to communicate A Transmission Medium A set of Rules & Procedure for proper communication (Protocol) Standard Data Representation Transmission of bits either Serial or Parallel Bit synchronisation using Start/stop bits in case of Asynchronous Transmission In Synchronous Transmission the agreed pattern of Flag Signal encoding rules viz. NRZ or RZ And other higher layer protocol
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ALTTC/NP/KKD/Data Communication 11 Data Representations • A group of bits are used to represent a character/number/ special symbol/Control Characters • 5-bit code can represent 32 symbols (2 5 =32) • 7-bit code can represent 128 symbols (2 7 =128) & • 8-bit code can represent 256 symbols (2 8 =256)
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