Hofstra Geology 001 Exam 1 Review

Hofstra Geology 001 Exam 1 Review - Geology 001 Exam 1...

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Geology 001 Exam 1 Review – Planet Earth Updated 10/12 Review all questions discussed in class (see presentation pdfs for review) Earth Systems: Hydrosphere – water vapor, salt water, fresh water, ice. 97% of water is saltwater. Most freshwater is found as ice. Largest reservoir of liquid water is groundwater. Atmosphere – composition of Earth’s atmosphere – Nitrogen, oxygen, greenhouse gases (water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane). Most gas is located near to the surface in the troposphere. Greenhouse effect – greenhouse gases trap heat radiated from the surface, prevents heat from escaping into space, keeping the Earth habitable. Ozone layer – located in the stratosphere, absorbs deadly UV radiation from the Sun. Biosphere – life – interacts and affects other systems (examples are provided in the lecture notes) Geosphere – Earth has distinct continents and oceans basins, extensive mountain systems, lack of craters, active volcanoes and earthquakes – active planet inside and out, surface constantly being remade by uplift and erosion. Solar System: Sun, rocky planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars), gas giants (Jupiter, Saturn), ice giants (Uranus, Neptune), minor planets (plutinos, asteroids), comets Origin of Elements Elements are made of atoms. The number of protons in an atom determines what element it is. Hydrogen (a single proton and electron – the simplest and most abundant element) and helium were created in the Big Bang at the origin of the universe (Big Bang nucleosynthesis). Heavier elements (lithium – iron) are made by nuclear fusion in the interior of stars (stellar nucleosynthesis). Most stellar nucleosynthesis occurs via the fusion of helium nuclei, so that elements with masses that are multiples of four (e.g. carbon, oxygen, silicon) are the most abundant. The heaviest elements (atomic mass > iron) are produced by neutron bombardment of iron and other elements when massive stars explode in a supernova. Planets and stars form from the collapse of interstellar clouds of dust and gas and incorporate the debris (mix of elements) created by previous generations of stars. Earth formed from refractory materials that were able to condense to solid form at high temperatures in the inner solar system. These materials were rich in iron, and oxides of silicon, iron, and magnesium. Early in the history of the Earth the planet melted and the metallic iron
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