Lecture notes chapter 4, pregancy and child birth

Lecture notes chapter 4, pregancy and child birth - Chapter...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

Chapter 4 provides a broad overview of the processes of conception, implantation, fetal development, and childbirth. It also provides information on the growth and changes to the woman and fetus during pregnancy, and the three stages of childbirth. Reasons for infertility and options for infertile couples are also discussed in this chapter. The objectives for Chapter 4 include: 1. Describe how sperm and ova become capable of fertilization 2. Describe the process of ovum maturation and ovulation 3. Explain the process of implantation of the embroyo in the uterus 4. Identify the necessary health habits to practice during pregnancy 5. Describe the three stages of labor 6. Describe the pros and cons of breast feeding 7. Describe the major fetal development stages during each trimester 8. Describe the reasons for female and male infertility and the options for overcoming it Fertility Awareness is also known as family planning, it can combine each method to identify when a woman is fertile. However, it must be remembered that the cycles for most women are not consistently 28-day cycles. The basic steps for creating a new life include fertilization, implantation, pregnancy (9 months), and confirming pregnancy. Today parenthood is now a matter of choice. There are increasing numbers of individuals and couples are choosing to remain child-free. The birth of a wanted child is generally considered joyful, however, some emotional pain and controversy for others due to drug use, disease, malnutrition, and /or familial chaos. The fertilization process includes capacitation or the biochemical changes in sperm cell; release enzymes that allows it to penetrate egg’s outer membranes. An oocyte viable ~ 12 - 24 hours after ovulation while sperm are viable ~ 12 - 48 hours.After its release from the follicle, the ovum begins its week-long journey down the fallopian tube. Fertilization generally occurs in the outermost third of the fallopian tube. Now fertilized, the ovum progresses toward the uterus, where it embeds itself in the endometrium of the uterus. The pregnancy is then fully established. Fertilization is defined as the union of sperm and ovum. Both must be mature and in the fallopian tube. Sperm are produced in seminiferous tubules in the testes. Round cells are incapable of fertilization. With hormonal influence these cells mature in a process called spermatogenesis (70 day maturation process). There are two phases: Phase 1 – meiosis reduces the cells 46 chromosomes to 23 Phase 2 – develop tadpole-like anatomy In the male, mature sperm move to epididymis, where they are stored. Ejaculation causes the sperm to move through the genital ducts and mix with fluids from the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland. Fluids nourish and protect the sperm. Once entering the vagina, sperm must enter the uterus through the cervix, and then into one of the fallopian tubes for fertilization. The cervix normally has a thick mucus preventing penetration by sperm and microorganisms. Near
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.
  • Spring '14
  • Queen
  • Sperm, progesterone, Uterus, Fallopian tube, OVUM

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern