13 Cell Metabolism - Lecture 13 How Cells Obtain Energy...

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Lecture 13 How Cells Obtain Energy From Food Chapter 13
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Catabolic Pathways Yield Energy by Oxidizing Organic Molecules
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lls Extract Energy from Sugars and Other Food Molecu via Enzyme Controlled Stepwise Oxidative Reactions Released Energy is Stored in Activated Carriers – ATP & NADH Oxidation = the removal or Loss of Electrons
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Direct burning of sugar in NONLIVING systems releases > energy than can be stored in any carrier molecule and is lost as
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ithin cells enzymes allow the degradation of glucose step by step in reactio pled to “pay out” energy in small packets via activated carriers with high-en bonds which can be accessed later to perform useful cellular work .
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Activated Carriers Can Store and Transfer Energy Needed for Metabolism
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Activated Carriers Involved in Metabolis m Acetyl CoA NADH or NADPH
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Electrons carried via NADH Glycolysis Glucos e Pyruvate ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation Electrons carried via NADH and FADH 2 Citric acid cycle Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis ATP ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation Mitochondrion Cytosol Sugars are Broken Down by Distinct Sets of Reactions
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Animals Make ATP in 2 Ways: 1. Oxidation of Food Molecules When coupled to energetically unfavorable reactions: ADP + Pi ATP 2. Oxidative Phosphorylation When the energy from other carriers is used to drive the formation of ATP. This occurs on the inner membrane of the cell’s mitochondria (Chapter 14).
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nergy from food is harvested in the mitochondrial matr and inner mitochondrial membrane
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Catabolism of Organic Molecules By Oxidation
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