Chapter 24 Notes: heart failure

Chapter 24 Notes: heart failure - Chapter 24 Heart Failure...

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Chapter 24 Heart Failure Was called congestive heart failure When the heart is unable to pump an adequate amount of blood to meet the body’s metabolic needs Occurs with aging and can also be accelerated or caused by: Coronary artery disease (CAD) Mitral stenosis Myocardial infarction (MI) Chronic hypertension (HTN) Diabetes mellitus (DM) Cardiovascular Changes in HF Cardiac output : the amount of blood pumped by each ventricle each minute Preload: the amount of blood that fills the heart just before systole Afterload : the pressure in the aorta that must be overcome in order for the heart to eject blood HTN increases peripheral resistance Drug Therapy for Heart Failure Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitor) Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) Diuretics: rid the body of excess fluid Cardiac glycosides Beta adrenergic blockers Vasodilators Specific Drugs for Heart Failure ACE inhibitor: lisinopril (Zestril) Diuretic: furosemide (Lasix)
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Unformatted text preview: • Beta Blocker: metoprolol (Lopressor) • Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor: milrinone (Primacor) Cardiac Glycosides • Medication: digoxin (lanoxin) • Purpose: increased force of myocardial contraction • decrease heart rate • Uses: heart failure • dysrhythmias (atrial fibrillation) Digoxin Toxicity • One of the most commonly encountered drug-related • reasons that patients are admitted to the hospital • Digoxin immune fab (Digibind) : Used to treat digitalis toxicity • Potassium levels (K+): 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L • Digoxin levels: 0.5 to 2.0 ng/mL Digoxin: Patient Teaching and Nursing Actions • Check the pulse rate and heart rhythm before each dose, hold if: • < 60 beats per minute (adult) • < 70 beats per minute (child) • < 90 beats per minute (infants) • Administer IV digoxin over 5 minutes • Administer at the same time daily • Therapeutic effects: improvement in edema, shortness of breath, anxiety...
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  • Spring '13
  • Crawford
  • digoxin

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