Chapter 15 Notes: drugs for seizures

Chapter 15 Notes: drugs for seizures - Chapter 15 Drugs...

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Chapter 15 Drugs for Seizures Seizure Epilepsy Aura Postictal Status epilepticus Electroencephalgram (EEG) Causes of Seizures The etiology of seizures Infectious diseases Trauma Metabolic disorders Vascular diseases Pediatric disorders: febrile seizures Neoplastic disease Eclampsia General Concepts Once a medication is selected the patient is placed on a low dose The amount is increased until seizure control is achieved or side effect develop Serum drug levels may be obtained A second medication may be added The first drug is discontinued gradually, over 6-12 weeks Important to observe for suicidal behavior How Antiseizure Therapy Works The goal: to suppress neuronal activity just enough to prevent abnormal or repetitive firing Three general mechanisms: stimulating an influx of chloride ions (GABA) delaying an influx of sodium delaying an influx of calcium
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Unformatted text preview: • Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) Barbiturates • Phenobarbital (Luminal) • First used in 1912 and still widely used • low margin of safety • high potential for dependence • Schedule IV Benzodiazepines • Diazepam (Valium) • often used to terminate status epilepticus • Other benzodiazepines are used to treat epilepsy in combination with other drugs • Antidote: flumazenil (Romazicon) Hydantoin and Newer Drugs • Phenytoin (Dilantin) • broad-spectrum hydantoin drug • dosages individualized • narrow therapeutic range • Level 10-20 mcg/mL • tetatogenic, sloughing Purple Glove Syndrome and Other Side/Adverse Effects • Purple glove • syndrome • Gingival hyperplasia • Nystagmus Other Drugs • Valproic acid (Depakene, Depakote) • Fosphenytoin (Cerebyx) • Ethosuxime (Zarontin)...
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  • Spring '13
  • Crawford
  • Seizures, Status epilepticus, SERUM DRUG LEVELS, Antiseizure Therapy Works

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