lecture16 - Lecture 16 The Limits of Computing and Articial...

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Lecture 16. The Limits of Computing and Artificial Intelligence (cont) Informal and unedited notes, not for distribution. (c) Z. Stachniak, 2011-2012. Note: in cases I were unable to find the primary source of an image or determine whether or not an image is copyrighted, I have specified the source as ”unknown”. I will provide full information about images and/or obtain reproduction rights when such information is available to me. AI defined Modern AI does not speak about robots that often. Robots and androids have been subsumed by a more general class of AI entities called AI agents. These agents act in diverse environments from real terrains (e.g. a real office or Martian terrain) to virtual realities and Internet (e.g. game AI characters or negotiating agents for e-commerce). An AI agent can be a physical device or software (or combination of both) that uses knowledge (represented and stored in the so-called knowledge base) and specific knowledge-based methods for solving problems in a selected do- main. AI agents ”act” by performing actions that modify their environments. 1
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Examples: Here are a few examples of AI agents’ types: game playing programs (knowledge base of game playing programs con- sist of rules of games as well as some search and game strategies); natural language processing agents for text translation, automated on- line assistants, call center assistants, etc. (knowledge base contains, among other things, information about natural languages as well as about specific domains); AI-planning systems (knowledge base contains information about the environment, goals to be achieved, and actions available to the agent); AI-based verification systems designed to detect specific errors in soft- ware and hardware designs (knowledge base contains, among other things, information about the system being diagnosed for errors); AI e-commerce agents, such as stock investors, financial traders, prop- erty managers, and fraud detectors. In the past, the advancement in AI was greeted with a lot of attention from popular media. After all, these robots, androids, and other types of artificial ”big brains” were to change our social and economic destiny. However, after AI shifted its focus away from the Turing test, the disci- pline became less visible to non-experts. Successful AI solutions have not been encapsulated in a body of a single android but embedded into myriad of ”non-AI” products ranging from refrigerators and elevators, to cars, air- planes, medical, scientific and military equipment. AI solutions are currently
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