Child Psychology Final Part 2

Child Psychology Final Part 2 - Chapter 11:Middle...

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Chapter 11:Middle Childhood-Physical Development Truth or Fiction? Children outgrow “baby fat.” (F) The typical American child is exposed to about 10,000 food commercials each year (T) Most American children are physically fit (F) Hyperactivity is caused by chemical food additives (F) Stimulants are often used to treat children who are already hyperactive (T) Some children who are intelligent and provided with enriched home environments cannot learn how to read or do simple math problems (T) Growth Patterns What Patterns of Growth Occur in Middle Childhood? o Height and Weight (between 6 and 12 years) Gains in height and weight are fairly steady throughout middle childhood Gains an average of a little over 2 inches and 5 to 7 pounds per year Boys are slightly heavier and taller than girls until 9 or 10 May experience aches and stiffness because of muscles adjusting to a growing skeleton (called “growing pains”) What Patterns of Growth Occur in Middle Childhood? o Brain Development Frontal lobe where executive functions is where most dramatic developments take place in middle childhood Planning and self-regulation Cognitive flexibility Goal setting Fluid reasoning (information processing) Vision and Hearing o Myopia (near-sightedness) 25% of US children in middle childhood Readily treated with corrective lenses or contact lenses o Ear Infections Number of children affected decreases during middle childhood Eustachian tube elongates and narrows so bacteria and infected fluid do not move to readily from the throat to the ear Can lead to hearing loss with frequent infections Nutrition and Growth o Children need to eat more to support the increased body weight and activity level (Ave. 4 to 6 yr. old needs 1400-1800 calories/day and Ave. 7 to 10 yr. Old needs 2,000 calories/ day) o Additional nutrition means more than just calories o Issues in nutrition during middle childhood
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Food offered to children in school tend to be heavy on sugar, animals fats and salt (although recent changes are happening to correct this) Increased food portions expected Fast food restaurants: offer large portions, very fattening and readily available o Relationship between social class and nutrition How Many Children in the United States are Overweight? Why are they Overweight? o Overweight involves both weight and body composition (the amount of muscle and fatty tissue) o 16% to 25% of children and adolescents in US are overweight o Most overweight children become overweight adults o Overweight children and adolescents Often are rejected by peers Perform poorly in sports Have poorer body images than children of normal weight o At greater risk for physical health problem High Blood Pressure Hardening of the arteries Type 2 Diabetes Fatty liver disease Ovary Disorders Abnormal breathing patterns during sleep Percentages of Children (Ages 6-11) and Adolescents (Ages 12-19) Who Are Overweight What Are the Causes of Obesity?
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  • Fall '12
  • KerriKerns
  • Psychology, Intelligence quotient, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Early Middle Childhood

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