Chapter 5 - Chapter 5 Infancy Physical Development Truth or...

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Chapter 5: Infancy- Physical Development Truth or Fiction? The head of the newborn child doubles in length by adulthood, but the legs increase in length by about five times (T) Infants triple their birth weight within a year (T) Breast feeding helps prevent obesity later in life (T) A child’s brain reaches half of its adult weight by the age of 1 year (T) The cerebral cortex- the outer layer of the brain that is vital to human thought and reasoning- is only one-eighth of an inch thick (T) Native American Hopi infants spend the first year of life strapped to a board yet they begin to walk at about the same time as children who are reared in other cultures (T) Infants need to have experience crawling before they develop fear of heights (Mixed evidence) Infancy: Physical Development What are the Sequences of Physical Development? o During the first 2 years, 3 key sequences of physical development: 1. Cephalocaudal Development Upper part of the head to the lower parts of the body Head doubles between birth and maturity but the torso triples in length, arms 4 times, and feet and legs 5 times 2. Proximodistal Development Trunk outward- from body’s central axis toward periphery Central axis are functional before the arms and legs 3. Differentiation Tendency of physical reactions become more specific and distinct What Patterns of Growth Occur in Infancy? o Weight doubles at about 5 months; triples by first birthday o Height increase by 50% in first year o Infants grow 4 to 6 inches in second year; and gain 4 to 7 pounds o Girls likely to reach half adult height at 18 months while boys reach half around 2 years o Growth appears continuous but actually occurs in spurts (studies show that 90-95% of time not growing at all) Changes in Body Proportions o Children’s heads are proportionately larger than adults’ (1/8/109 of body height) Cephalocaudal development o Changes in proportion of arms and legs What is Failure to Thrive? o Growth impairment during infancy and early childhood characterized by failure to gain weight within normal limits
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o Causes may be organic (underlying health problem) or nonorganic (psychological or social root) Biologically based or non-biologically based o Linked to physical, cognitive, behavioral, and emotional problems o Deficiencies in caregiver-child interaction may play a role in FTT; can lead to reactive attachment disorders o Marasmus- condition related to FTT; due to a diet low in essential nutrition (demonstrate painful thinness) o Canalization- tendency to return to one’s genetically determined pattern of growth (catch up growth) once FTT is resolved Often results from a combination of factors and treatment may not be easy (Marasmus-“merazmis”) What are the Nutritional Needs of Children?
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