Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Heredity and Conception Learning...

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Chapter 2: Heredity and Conception Learning Objectives 1. Explain what child development is and why it is important to study child development 2. Discuss the history of child development. Have views about child development changed across time? If so, how? 3. Describe the major theories of child development and why we have theories. 4. Discuss the major controversies in the study of child development 5. Describe how psychologists study child development 6. Discuss the ethical considerations involved in studying child development Truth or Fiction? Your father determined whether you are female or male (T) Brown hair are dominant over blonde hair (T) You can carry the genes for a deadly illness and not become sick yourself (T) Girls are born with all the egg cells they will ever have (T) About 120 to 150 boys are conceived for every 100 girls (T) Sperm travel about at random inside the woman’s reproductive tract, so that reaching the ovum is a matter of luck (F) Extensive athletic activity may contribute to infertility in the male (T) “Test-tube” babies are grown in a laboratory dish throughout their 9-month gestation period (F) You can select the sex of your child (T) The Influence of Heredity on Development (The Nature of Nature) What is Meant by Heredity? o Heredity One’s nature based on biological transmission of traits and characteristics (ex: the reason birds can fly without special equipment and we can’t) Makes possible all things human o Genetics Field within the science of biology that studies heredity o Genetic Influences Physical traits (ex: height, eye color, etc.) Behavioral traits (ex: sociability, activity level, etc.) Psychological problems (ex: depression, addictions, etc.) What Are Chromosomes and Genes? o Chromosomes Rod shaped structures found in cells Every cell contains 23 pairs of rod-shaped structures Each chromosome carries thousands of segments called genes o Genes Biochemical materials that regulate the development of traits
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Some traits transmitted by a single gene or may be polygenic (combination of pairs of genes) 20,000 to 25,000 genes in every cell What Are Chromosomes and Genes? o DNA Genes are made up of large strands of DNA Takes the form of Double spiral (helix) similar to a twisting ladder The sides of the “ladder” is composed of alternating segments of phosphate (P) and simple sugar (S) The “rungs” of the ladder consist of two pairs of bases, either adenine with thymine (A-T) or cytosine with guanine (C-G) The sequence of the rungs causes some organisms to grow wings and other arms What Happens During Cell Division? o Life begins as a single cell or zygote o Mitosis Cell division by which growth occurs Strands of DNA break apart, duplicate and are rebuilt Result is identical copies of DNA strand Unless Mutation (sudden variation in a heritable characteristic) occurs What Happens During Cell Division?
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