Chapter 4 Notes - Chapter 4 Theories of Motivation What is...

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Chapter 4 – Theories of Motivation What is Motivation – Motivation: the intensity, direction, and persistence of effort a person shows in reaching a goal. Intensity: describes how hard a person tries. Direction: intensity is only beneficial when channeled in a specific direction. Persistence: measures how long a person can maintain effort. Theory X: the assumption that employees dislike work, will attempt to avoid it, and must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals. Theory Y: the assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and will exercise self- direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives. Neither theory alone fully accounts for employee behavior. Motivation is the result of the interactions of the individual and the situation. The level of motivation varies both among individuals and within individuals at different times. Intrinsic Motivators: a person’s internal desire to do something, due to such things as interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction. Individuals are intrinsically motivated when they genuinely care about their work, look for better ways to do it, and are energized and fulfilled by doing it well. Extrinsic Motivators: motivation that comes from outside the person and includes such things as pay, bonuses, and other tangible rewards. Needs Theories of Motivation – Needs theories describe the types of needs that must be met to motivate individuals. Needs theories represent a foundation from which contemporary theories have grown. Practicing managers still regularly use needs theories and their terminology in explaining employee motivation. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory: a hierarchy of 5 needs – physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self- actualization – in which, as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes the dominant. Physiological: includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other bodily needs. Safety: includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm. Social: includes affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship. Esteem: includes internal esteem factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement; and external esteem factors such as status, recognition, and attention. Self-Actualization: includes growth, achieving one’s potential, and self-fulfillment. This is the drive to become what one is capable of becoming. Lower-Order Needs: needs that are satisfied externally, such as physiological and safety needs. Higher-Order Needs: needs that are satisfied internally, such as social, esteem, and self-actualization needs. ERG Theory: a theory that posits three groups of core needs – existence, relatedness, and growth.
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