Chapter 2 Notes - Chapter 2 Perception Personality and...

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Chapter 2- Perception, Personality, and Emotions Perception: The process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. Factors Influencing Perception – The Perceiver Attitudes Motives Interests Experience Expectations The Target Novelty Motion Sounds Size Background Proximity The Situation Time Work setting Social setting Perceptual Errors – Attribution Theory: The theory that when we observe what seems like atypical behavior by an individual, we attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. 1. Distinctiveness: a behavioral rule that considers whether an individual acts similarly across a variety of situations. 2. Consensus: A behavioral rule that considers if everyone faced with a similar situation responds in the same way. 3. Consistency: a behavioral rule that considers whether the individual has been acting in the same way over time. How Attributions Get Distorted – Fundamental Attribution Error: the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others. Self-Serving Bias: the tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors. Selective Perception: people’s selective interpretation of what they see based on their interests, background, experience, and attitudes. (*Selective perception filter is in your own brain) Halo Effect: drawing a general impression of an individual on the basis of a single characteristic, such as intelligence, likeability, or appearance. Allowing a single trait to influence their overall impression of the person being judged. Contrast Effects: the concept that our reaction to one person is often influenced by other people we have recently encountered. Projection: attributing one’s own characteristics to other people.
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We tend to project characteristics of ourselves that we are unaware of, or that we reject. Stereotyping: judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs. Heuristics: judgments shortcuts in decision making. Prejudice: an unfounded dislike of a person or group based on their belonging to a stereotyped group.
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