survey design and measurement

Issues to consider in designing itemized scales

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Unformatted text preview: ed by using a Stapel scale can be analyzed in the same way as semantic differential data. Issues to Consider in Designing Itemized Scales • Number of Scale categories • Balanced vs. Unbalanced Scales • Odd or Even # of Scale categories • Forced vs. Nonforced scales • Nature and degree of verbal description • Physical form or configuration Balanced and Unbalanced Scales Balanced Scale Surfing the Internet is Unbalanced Scale Surfing the Internet is ____ Extremely Good ____ Extremely Good ____ Very Good ____ Very Good ____ Good ____ Good ____ Bad ____ Somewhat Good ____ Very Bad ____ Bad ____ Extremely Bad ____ Very Bad 14 Rating Scale Configurations A variety of scale configurations may be employed to measure the comfort of Nike shoes. Some examples include: Nike shoes are: 1) Place an “X” on one of the blank spaces… Very Uncomfortable Very Comfortable 2) Circle the number… 1 Very Uncomfortable 2 3 4 5 6 7 Very Comfortable 3) Place an “X” on one of the blank spaces… Very Uncomfortable Uncomfortable Neither Uncomfortable nor Comfortable Comfortable Very Comfortable 4) Uncomfortable Somewhat Somewhat Comfortable Very Neither Uncomfortable Comfortable Uncomfortable Comfortable nor Uncomfortable Very Comfortable 5) -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Neither Comfortable nor Uncomfortable Very Uncomfortable Very Comfortable Some Unique Rating Scale Configurations Thermometer Scale Instructions: Please indicate how much you like McDonald’s hamburgers by coloring in the thermometer. Start at the bottom and color up to the temperature level that best indicates how strong your preference is. Form: Like very much 100 75 50 25 0 Dislike very much Smiling Face Scale Instructions: Please point to the face that shows how much you like the Barbie Doll. If you do not like the Barbie Doll at all, you would point to Face 1. If you liked it very much, you would point to Face 5. Form: 1 2 3 4 5 15 Multi-Item Scales • Construct Development • Issues of Reliability and Validity − reliability: a measure that provides consistent results over time. Free of random error − validity: a measure is valid if it measures what it is supposed to. Free of measurement error − a measure must be reliable in order to be valid Reliability and Validity of Multi-Item Scales Scale Evaluation Validity Reliability Content Test-Retest Internal Consistency Criterion Alternative Forms Construct Convergent Validity Discriminant Validity Nomological Validity Back To The Survey Development Process… 16 Questionnaire Design Process Specify the Information Needed Specify the Type of Interviewing Method Determine the Content of Individual Questions Design the Question to Overcome the Respondent’s Inability and Unwillingness to Answer Decide on the Question Structure Determine the Question Wording Arrange the Questions in Proper Order Step Details: Determine Question Wording • Wording must be clear, unambiguous and ordinary − No jargon • Avoid biasing the respondent • Avoid implicit alternatives and implicit assumptions • Avoid generalizations and estimates • Use dual statements where some are stated positively and negatively...
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This document was uploaded on 03/25/2014.

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