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Lectures 22-24.Speciation Study Questions.2013

There are at least three genetically distinct

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Unformatted text preview: tween monophyletic, paraphyletic, and polyphyletic clades/taxa. Why are Reptilia without birds (Aves) paraphyletic? Why do evolutionary biologists aim to name only monophyletic taxa? Why are non- monophyletic taxa a problem? Do sister species represent a monophyletic taxon? 9. Secondary contact between previously allopatric populations can lead to one of three outcomes. What are those outcomes, how does the process of reinforcement figure into the outcomes of secondary contact? BIS 2B, Spring 2013 Speciation Page 5 10. An island in an isolated oceanic archipelago of recently formed (the last few million years) volcanic islands is colonized by three mainland species of beetle. The three species differ in several important characteristics (see table on the next page). What do you predict will be the patterns of diversification and speciation for the three descendant lineages? Explain how the differences in population biology, ecology, and mating behavior (e.g., population size and structure, dispersal, resource utilization, mating preferences) affect the likely evolutionary fate (i.e., potential for speciation) of each of the lineages. SPECIES 1 SPECIES 2 SPECIES 3 Strong flier over Flightless* Flightless FLIGHT long distances POPULATION GROWTH Fast Slow Slow POPULATION SIZE Large, continuous Small, patchy Small, patchy HOST PLANTS Feeds on many different plants Very host specific feeding, but do NOT mate on host plant Populations tend to feed AND mate on one or a few plant species. There is intraspecific variation for host preferences. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ BIS 2B, Spring 2013 Speciation Page 6 11. With respect to the phylogeny shown below, which of the following statements is TRUE: a) Species F, G, H, I, and J form a polyphyletic group. b) Species A, B, C, D, and E form a paraphyletic group. c) Species A, B, I and J form a monophyletic group. d) Species F, G, and H form a monophyletic group derived from the same common ancestor. e) Species C, D, and E form a monophyletic group. 12. In the phylogeny shown below, what is the fewest number of speciation events that could have given rise to the clade that includes species A, B, C, D,...
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