2_Unit1.2_Measurement copy

1 0s 5 a 01 10 15 ms2 20 25 30 35 02 03 04 05 time

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Unformatted text preview:   Relative motion is the motion of one segment or point in a configuration relative to another •  Postural coordination patterns Upright Stance Ankle Pattern Hip Pattern all kinematics---motion over time... Intra-limb Coordination: Running ITO = ipsilateral take-off IFS = ipsilateral foot-strike CTO = contralateral take-off CFS = contralateral foot strike Enoka et al. (1978) Kinetics the forces that cause motion---basically newtons laws. •  Measurements of the forces which cause motion. •  Predominantly apply Newton’s laws of motion.   Examples: •  Force: push or pull on an object; product of an object’s mass and acceleration (e.g., ground reaction force) •  Torque: angular force directed around an axis of rotation; product of force and perpendicular distance to the axis •  Momentum: product of an object’s mass and velocity •  Equipment includes force platforms, strain gauges, etc. 17 Kinetics: Force Platform the calf activates first. when you pull for some reason- its not clear. Electromyography (EMG) •  Measures the electrical activity in muscle. Electrodes are attached to the skin superficial to the muscle belly Electrodes detect electrical activity which result in muscular contraction. Electrical signals are amplified and recorded. Data describes temporal patterning, and amplitude. STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN Brain activity and Imaging 18 Electroencephalography (EEG) •  Electrodes placed on skull detect and record ‘brainwaves’, or the electrical patterns created by the rhythmic oscillations of neurons. •  Technique often uses: –  Event related potentials (ERPs): electrical peaks that are related to a specific stimulus. –  Coherence- functional communication between brain areas of interest structural MRI is like a very good xray functional MRI- measures the firing of neurons due to the change in blood flow to a particular are of the brean- as you use more nurons they need more blood that are must be important to the task that you are doing. fMRIbut this is EEG--- he fucked up but thats good information. Electroencephalography (EEG) •  Electrodes placed on skull detect and record ‘brainwaves’, or the electrical patterns created by the rhythmic oscillations of neurons. Electroencephalography (EEG) good temporal resolution what is it?????-- it takes measures more often. Pros: Directly measure brain activation Good temporal Resolution Relatively cheap Easy to transport Silent! Easy to use for MANY behavioral paradigm and with different populations Cons: Spatial resolution Set-up time 19 Positron Emission Tomography (PET) gives color maps and inject you with radio active marjers •  Uses computed tomography (CT) and radioactive markers injected in the bloodstream. •  Identifies areas of brain working most based on ‘fuel intake’ (i.e., glucose and O2 providing energy to firing neurons). has good spatial resolution--means gives alot of differenctiation about WHERE in the brain activity is occuring. has poor temporal resolution---this does not change as fast as...
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