Unformatted text preview: d)
Post KR delay of 5-60 seconds appears to be beneficial 6 7/4/12 other distractions hinder learning.-----like pit STAINS.
Effects of activity in the post-KR interval Similar to the KR delay interval, most activities have
no effect here, but:
Other cognitive activity hinders learning
(e.g., math problems, behavioral distractions, etc.)
nasty breath!!! Frequency of Augmented Feedback
How often should feedback be provided?
Previous thinking was that it should be given on every
trial – since performance suffered on trials without KR
Now we know that 100% of the time is NOT optimal Why??
The Guidance Hypothesis (Winstein & Schmidt, 1990) if you give toomuch feedback too often--you can hinder learning!!!!!.
Fading schedules of feedback
• Decreases frequency of feedback through practice
to wean learner from dependency Pattern matching
Winstein & Schmidt (1990) • No differences in acquisition – but fading schedule is
better in retention 7 7/4/12 Bandwidths in augmented feedback
• A bandwidth is a range or tolerance limit of performance
• For feedback: How great the amount of error should
be before feedback is given.
• Bandwidth feedback is feedback given within a predefined range of error. Bandwidths in augmented feedback feedback was givin based on how well you did. if you fucked up you
got more feedback…. Task: Match a criterion 200 ms elbow flexion movement
Groups: 0% bandwidth (feedback every trial)
5% bandwidth (feedback only if error >5%)
10% bandwidth (feedback only if error >10%) when you got feedback based on how much you fucked up your
performance improved. Larger bandwidths may be
better, and the bandwidths
do not necessarily need to
decrease as learning
Sherwood (1988) Summary Feedback Lever movement to
1) every trial (sum 1)
2) every 5 trials (sum 5)
3) every 10 trials (sum 10)
4) every 15 trials (sum 15) Schmidt et al. (1989) 8 7/4/12 Ways to reduce frequency of feedback"
1. Performance-based bandwidths
2. Self-selected frequency
• akin to asking for help when needed
• encourages active participation 3. Summary feedback
• feedback is given after certain number of trials
• gives overall knowledge of progress, but diminishes
dependency on feedback as information lacks specificity 9...
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- Fall '08
- Educational Psychology, Skill, KR