tech paper22 - Cell Phones Throughout the years, a growing...

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Cell Phones Throughout the years, a growing invention that many people are using is the cell phone. Many people have continued buying and using cell phones, as they become more and more advanced, such as being able to connect to the internet from some phone. Cell phones have had several large impacts on today’s society, and have also caused cultural changes. A cell phone is a type of wireless communication that is most familiar to mobile phones users. It's called cellular because the system uses many base stations to divide a service area into multiple cells. Cellular calls are transferred from base station to base station as a user travels from cell to cell. The basic concept of cellular phones began in 1947, when researchers looked at crude mobile (car) phones and realized that by using small cells (range of service area) with frequency reuse they could increase the traffic capacity of mobile phones substantially. However at that time, the technology to do so was nonexistent (Bellis). Anything to do with broadcasting and sending a radio or television message out over the airwaves comes under Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulation. A cell phone is a type of two-way radio. In 1947, AT&T proposed that the FCC allocate a large number of radio-spectrum frequencies so that widespread mobile telephone service would become feasible and AT&T would have an incentive to research the new technology. We can partially blame the FCC for the gap between the initial concept of cellular service and its availability to the public. The FCC decided to limit the amount of frequencies available in 1947, the limits made only twenty-three phone conversations
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possible simultaneously in the same service area - not a market incentive for research. The FCC reconsidered its position in 1968, saying that "if the technology to build a better mobile service works, we will increase the frequencies allocation, freeing the airwaves for more mobile phones.” AT&T and Bell Labs proposed a cellular system to the FCC of many small, low- powered, broadcast towers, each covering a 'cell' a few miles in radius and collectively covering a larger area. Each tower would use only a few of the total frequencies allocated to the system. As the phones traveled across the area, calls would be passed from tower to tower. Dr Martin Cooper, a former general manager for the systems division at Motorola, is considered the inventor of the first modern portable handset, he made the first call on a portable cell phone in April of 1973, and the call was made to Joel Engel, who was a competitor in the early days of cell phone communications. In 1977, AT&T made a test run with consumers in Chicago, letting over 2000 people try the network. Other test runs were ran in the D.C. and Baltimore area.
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tech paper22 - Cell Phones Throughout the years, a growing...

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