The South American Revolutions _ Boundless World...

This preview shows page 1 out of 28 pages.

Unformatted text preview: 1/6/2021 The South American Revolutions | Boundless World History Boundless World History Change in the Americas The South American Revolutions -… 1/28 1/6/2021 The South American Revolutions | Boundless World History Red, Swo Ad Individ home. Ad Project Bas Open The Spread of Revolution The Latin American Wars of Independence, which took place during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, were deeply in uenced by the American and French Revolutions and resulted in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Relate the South American Revolutions to the American and French Revolutions KEY TAKEAWAYS Key Points The revolutionary fervor of the 18th century, in uenced by Enlightenment ideals of liberty and equality, resulted in massive political upheaval across the world, starting -… 2/28 1/6/2021 The South American Revolutions | Boundless World History with the American Revolution in 1776 and the French Revolution in 1789. The principles expounded by the revolutionaries in Europe and their political success in overthrowing the autocratic rule of the monarchy inspired similar movements in Latin America, rst in Haiti (then the French colony of Saint Domingue), whose revolution began just two years after the start of the French Revolution. At rst, the white settler-colonists were inspired by the French Revolution to gain independent control over their colonies, but soon the revolution became centered on a slave-led rebellion against slavery and colonization, a trend that would continue throughout the America with varying degrees of success. Soon after the French Revolution and its resulting political instability, Napoleon Bonaparte took power, further destabilizing the Latin American colonies and leading to more revolution. The Peninsular War, which resulted from the Napoleonic occupation of Spain, caused Spanish Creoles in Spanish America to question their allegiance to Spain, stoking independence movements that culminated in the wars of independence, which lasted almost two decades. At the time of the wars of independence, there was discussion of creating a regional state or confederation of Latin American nations to protect the area’s new autonomy, but after several projects failed, the issue was not taken up again until the late 19th century. Key Terms Libertadores: Refers to the principal leaders of the Latin American wars of independence from Spain and Portugal. They are named in contrast with the Conquistadors, who were so far the only Spanish/Portuguese peoples recorded in the South -… 3/28 1/6/2021 The South American Revolutions | Boundless World History American history. They were largely bourgeois criollos (local-born people of European, mostly of Spanish or Portuguese, ancestry) in uenced by liberalism and in most cases with military training in the metropole (mother country). Napoleonic wars: A series of major con icts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a uctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, primarily led and nanced by the United Kingdom. The wars resulted from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and the Revolutionary Wars, which raged for years before concluding with the Treaty of Amiens in 1802. The resumption of hostilities the following year paved the way for more than a decade of constant warfare. These wars had profound consequences for global and European history, leading to the spread of nationalism and liberalism, the rise of the British Empire as the world’s premier power, the independence movements in Latin America and the collapse of the Spanish Empire, the fundamental reorganization of German and Italian territories into larger states, and the establishment of radically new methods in warfare. Haitian Revolution: A successful anti-slavery and anti- colonial insurrection that took place in the former French colony of Saint Domingue from 1791 until 1804. It a ected the institution of slavery throughout the Americas. Self-liberated slaves destroyed slavery at home, fought to preserve their freedom, and with the collaboration of mulattoes, founded the sovereign state of Haiti. The Latin American Wars of Independence were the revolutions that took place during the late 18th and early 19th centuries and resulted in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America. These revolutions followed the American and French Revolutions, which had profound e ects on the Spanish, Portuguese, and French colonies -… 4/28 1/6/2021 The South American Revolutions | Boundless World History in the Americas. Haiti, a French slave colony, was the rst to follow the United States to independence during the Haitian Revolution, which lasted from 1791 to 1804. From this Napoleon Bonaparte emerged as French ruler, whose armies set out to conquer Europe, including Spain and Portugal, in 1808. The Peninsular War, which resulted from the Napoleonic occupation of Spain, caused Spanish Creoles in Spanish America to question their allegiance to Spain, stoking independence movements that culminated in the wars of independence, lasting almost two decades. The crisis of political legitimacy in Spain with the Napoleonic invasion sparked reaction in Spain’s overseas empire. The outcome in Spanish America was that most of the region achieved political independence and instigated the creation of sovereign nations. The areas that were most recently formed as viceroyalties were the rst to achieve independence, while the old centers of Spanish power in Mexico and Peru with strong and entrenched institutions and the elites were the last to achieve independence. The two exceptions were the islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico, which along with the Philippines remained Spanish colonies until the 1898 Spanish-America War. At the same time, the Portuguese monarchy relocated to Brazil during Portugal’s French occupation. After the royal court returned to Lisbon, the prince regent, Pedro, remained in Brazil and in 1822 successfully declared himself emperor of a newly independent Brazil. Spanish America: Hope for a Uni ed Latin America The chaos of the Napoleonic wars in Europe cut the direct links between Spain and its American colonies, allowing decolonization to begin. During the Peninsula War, Napoleon installed his brother Joseph Bonaparte on the Spanish Throne and captured King Fernando VII. Several assemblies were established after 1810 by the Criollos to recover the sovereignty and self-government based in Seven-Part Code and restore the laws of Castilian succession to rule the lands in the name of Ferdinand VII of Spain. This experience of self-government, along with the in uence of -… 5/28 1/6/2021 The South American Revolutions | Boundless World History Liberalism and the ideas of the French and American Revolutions, brought about a struggle for independence led by the Libertadores. The territories freed themselves, often with help from foreign mercenaries and privateers. United States, Europe and the British Empire were neutral, aiming to achieve political in uence and trade without the Spanish monopoly. In South America, Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín led the nal phase of the independence struggle. Although Bolívar attempted to keep the Spanish-speaking parts of the continent politically uni ed, they rapidly became independent of one another as well, and several further wars were fought, such as the Paraguayan War and the War of the Paci c. At the time, there was discussion of creating a regional state or confederation of Latin American nations to protect the area’s newly won autonomy. After several projects failed, the issue was not taken up again until the late 19th century. A related process took place in Spain’s North and Central American colonies with the Mexican War of Independence and related struggles. Independence was achieved in 1821 by a coalition uniting under Agustín de Iturbide and the Army of the Three Guarantees. Unity was maintained for a short period under the First Mexican Empire, but within a decade the region had also split into various nations. In 1898, in the Greater Antilles, the United States won the SpanishAmerican War and occupied Cuba and Puerto Rico, ending Spanish territorial control in the Americas. Impact of the French Revolution: Haiti The Haitian Revolution was a successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection that took place in the former French colony of Saint Domingue from 1791 until 1804. It a ected the institution of slavery throughout the Americas. Self-liberated slaves destroyed slavery at home, fought to preserve their freedom, and with the collaboration of mulattoes, founded the sovereign state of Haiti. From the beginning of colonization, white colonists and black slaves -… 6/28 1/6/2021 The South American Revolutions | Boundless World History frequently came into violent con ict. The French Revolution, which began in 1789, shaped the course of the ongoing con ict in SaintDomingue and was at rst welcomed in the island. In France, the National Assembly made radical changes in French laws, and on August 26, 1789, published the Declaration of the Rights of Man, declaring all men free and equal. Wealthy whites saw it as an opportunity to gain independence from France, which would allow elite plantation-owners to take control of the island and create trade regulations that would further their own wealth and power. There were so many twists and turns in the leadership in France and so many complex events in Saint-Domingue that various classes and parties changed their alignments many times. However, the Haitian Revolution quickly became a test of the ideology of the French Revolution, as it radicalized the slavery question and forced French leaders to recognize the full meaning of their revolution. The African population on the island began to hear of the agitation for independence by the rich European planters, the grands blancs, who resented France’s limitations on the island’s foreign trade. The Africans mostly allied with the royalists and the British, as they understood that if Saint-Domingue’s independence were to be led by white slave masters, it would probably mean even harsher treatment and increased injustice for the African population. The plantation owners would be free to operate slavery as they pleased without the existing minimal accountability to their French peers. Saint-Domingue’s free people of color, most notably Julien Raimond, had been actively appealing to France for full civil equality with whites since the 1780s. Raimond used the French Revolution to make this the major colonial issue before the National Assembly of France. In October 1790, Vincent Ogé, another wealthy free man of color from the colony, returned home from Paris, where he had been working with Raimond. Convinced that a law passed by the French Constituent Assembly gave full civil rights to wealthy men of color, Ogé demanded the right to vote. When the colonial governor refused, Ogé led a brief insurgency in the area around Cap Français. He and an army of around 300 free blacks fought to end racial discrimination in the area. He was captured in early 1791, and brutally executed by being “broken on the wheel” before being beheaded. Ogé was not ghting against slavery, but his treatment was cited by later slave rebels as one of the factors in their decision to rise -… 7/28 1/6/2021 The South American Revolutions | Boundless World History up in August 1791 and resist treaties with the colonists. The con ict up to this point was between factions of whites and between whites and free blacks. Enslaved blacks watched from the sidelines. The Revolution in Haiti did not wait on the Revolution in France. The individuals in Haiti relied on no resolution but their own. The call for modi cation of society was in uenced by the revolution in France, but once the hope for change found a place in the hearts of the Haitian people, there was no stopping the radical reformation that was occurring. The Enlightenment ideals and the initiation of the French Revolution were enough to inspire the Haitian Revolution, which evolved into the most successful and comprehensive slave rebellion. Just as the French were successful in transforming their society, so were the Haitians. On April 4, 1792, The French National Assembly granted freedom to slaves in Haiti and the revolution culminated in 1804; Haiti was an independent nation comprised solely of free people. The activities of the revolutions sparked change across the world. France’s transformation was most in uential in Europe, and Haiti’s in uence spanned across every location that continued to practice slavery. John E. Baur honors Haiti as home of the most in uential revolution in history. Haitian Revolution: Battle at San Domingo, a painting by January -… 8/28 1/6/2021 The South American Revolutions | Boundless World History Suchodolski, depicting a struggle between Polish troops in French service and the slave rebels and freed revolutionary soldiers. Simón Bolívar Simón Bolívar was a Venezuelan military and political leader who played a leading role in the Latin American wars of independence and was a major proponent of a uni ed Latin America. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Recall Simón Bolívar and his contributions to South American independence movements KEY TAKEAWAYS Key Points The military and political career of Simón Bolívar, which included both formal service in the armies of various revolutionary regimes and actions organized by himself or in collaboration with other exiled patriot leaders from 1811 to 1830, was important in the success of the independence wars in South America. These wars, often under the leadership of Bolívar, resulted in the creation of several South American states out of the former Spanish colonies: the currently existing Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, and the now-defunct Gran Colombia. Bolívar rst found success in his native Venezuela, taking advantage of the instability caused by Napoleon’s Peninsular War and leading the -… 9/28 1/6/2021 The South American Revolutions | Boundless World History revolutionary forces to a victory in 1821, which resulted in the creation of an independent Venezuela. Throughout his military career, he also lead e orts to oust Spanish rulers from Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. Bolívar was passionate about the creation of a uni ed Latin America, through military and economic alliances and various confederations to protect the area’s newly won autonomy, but in the end, nationalistic enterprises won out. Key Terms Peninsular War: A military con ict between Napoleon’s empire and the allied powers of Spain, Britain, and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war started when French and Spanish armies invaded and occupied Portugal in 1807, and escalated in 1808 when France turned on Spain, its previous ally. The war on the peninsula lasted until the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814, and is regarded as one of the rst wars of national liberation, signi cant for the emergence of large-scale guerrilla warfare. Creole: A social class in the hierarchy of the overseas colonies established by Spain in the 16th century, especially in Hispanic America, comprising the locally born people of con rmed European (primarily Spanish) ancestry. Although they were legally Spaniards, in practice, they ranked below the Iberian-born Peninsulares. Nevertheless, they had preeminence over all the other populations: Amerindians, enslaved Africans, and people of mixed descent. caudillismo: A cultural and political phenomenon rst appearing during the early 19th century in revolutionary Spanish America, characterized by a military land owners who possessed political power, charismatic personalities, and populist politics and created authoritarian regimes in Latin American nations. … 10/28 1/6/2021 The South American Revolutions | Boundless World History Gran Colombia: A name used today for the state that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831. It included the territories of present-day Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Panama, northern Peru, western Guyana, and northwest Brazil. El Libertador: Simón Bolívar Simón Bolívar (July 24, 1783 – December 17, 1830) was a Venezuelan military and political leader who played a key role in the establishment of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Panama as sovereign states independent of Spanish rule. Bolívar was born into a wealthy, aristocratic Creole family and like others of his day was educated abroad at a young age, arriving in Spain when he was 16 and later moving to France. While in Europe, he was introduced to the ideas of Enlightenment philosophers, which gave him the ambition to replace the Spanish as rulers. Taking advantage of the disorder in Spain prompted by the Peninsular War, Bolívar began his campaign for Venezuelan independence in 1808, appealing to the wealthy Creole population through a conservative process, and established an organized national congress within three years. Despite a number of hindrances, including the arrival of an unprecedentedly large Spanish expeditionary force, the revolutionaries eventually prevailed, culminating in a patriot victory at the Battle of Carabobo in 1821 that e ectively made Venezuela an independent country. Following this triumph over the Spanish monarchy, Bolívar participated in the foundation of the rst union of independent nations in Latin America, Gran Colombia, of which he was president from 1819 to 1830. Through further military campaigns, he ousted Spanish rulers from Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia (which was named after him). He was simultaneously president of Gran Colombia (current Venezuela, Colombia, Panamá, and Ecuador) and Peru, while his second in command Antonio José de Sucre was appointed president of Bolivia. He aimed at a strong and united Spanish America able to cope not only with the threats emanating from … 11/28 1/6/2021 The South American Revolutions | Boundless World History Spain and the European Holy Alliance but also with the emerging power of the United States. At the peak of his power, Bolívar ruled over a vast territory from the Argentine border to the Caribbean Sea. In his 21-year career, Bolívar faced two main challenges. First was gaining acceptance as undisputed leader of the republican cause. Despite claiming such a role since 1813, he began to achieve acceptance only in 1817, and consolidated his hold on power after his dramatic and unexpected victory in New Granada in 1819. His second challenge was implementing a vision to unify the region into one large state, which he believed (and most would agree, correctly) would be the only guarantee of maintaining American independence from the Spanish in northern South America. His early experiences under the First Venezuelan Republic and in New Granada convinced him that divisions among republicans, augmented by federal forms of government, only allowed Spanish American royalists to eventually gain the upper hand. Once again, it was his victory in 1819 that gave him the leverage to bring about the creation of a uni ed state, Gran Colombia, with which to oppose the Spanish Monarchy on the continent. Bolívar is, along with Argentine General José de San Martín, considered one of the great heroes of the Hispanic independence movements of the early 19th century. … 12/28 1/6/2021 The South American Revolutions | Boundless World History Simón Bolívar: A portait of Simón Bolívar by Arturo Michelena. Bolívar is considered one of the leading gures in the Latin American wars of independence. Failed Dream of a Uni ed Latin America At the end of the wars of independence (1808–1825), many new sovereign states emerged in the Americas from the former Spanish colonies. Throughout this revolutionary era, Bolívar envisioned...
View Full Document

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture