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ThoughtLanguage - PSY 101 General Psychology Problem...

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PSY 101: General Psychology Problem solving and Language
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Errors in Problem Solving charades Your chapter describes many heuristics that humans use to solve complex problems, as compared to computers, which use algorithms. Why do you think that humans evolved to use heuristics instead of algorithms? • Because it is more efficient (less time consuming) • Because in real world reasoning, there may not be a a clearly correct solution, or you may have incomplete information. But you still have to vote, invest, hire people, make business decisions, diagnoses, give legal advice etc…
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Homeopathic drugs “the smaller the dose, the more powerful the effect” Homeopathic drugs 1. I sometimes use them. 2. I don’t use them but I think they work for some people. 3. They are the ultimate fake. 4. I really don’t have an opinion.
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In some cases, to have at least one molecule of the original substance dissolved in a minimum of 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,0 00,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000 molecules of water. This would require a container more than 30,000,000,000 times the size of the Earth. From ignorant certainty to intelligent confusion (King & Kitchener, 1994) 1- Pre-reflective reasoning - assumes that there is always a correct answer (authority knows). - If they don’t know it, they choose based on what “feels” right, and do not see any reason to justify a belief.
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Example of pre-reflective thinking Q- Can you ever know for sure that your position on evolution is correct? A-Some people believe we have evolved from apes. I would never believe that and nobody could talk me out of the way I believe because that’s what’s told in the Bible. 2- Quasi-reflective thinking - Recognize that some things cannot be known for sure. - Assume that this means any judgment is purely subjective. You have your idea and I have mine”, as if all opinions are created equal.
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3 - Reflective judgment - Some judgments are more valid than others based on the evidence, their coherence, their usefulness… - Have acquired tools to compare different options. Research shows… • Most people do not show reflective judgment until middle or late twenties, if at all. • Most freshmen score at early stages of quasi-reflective thinking. • By senior year, reflective judgment is more likely • Many advanced doctoral students use reflective thinking consistently
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A ping pong ball 1” in diameter falls into a 3 length of pipe that is 1 1/8” in diameter. The pipe is firmly affixed to the concrete pavement. It is extremely important to remove the ball.
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