Answers-HW1

Answers-HW1 - As atomic radius gets larger, bond length...

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Question 1. What is the hybridization of each atom. Hydrogen only has atomic s orbitals. N N N N NH 2 O H OH H H H H O P - O O - O Every atom is sp2 except the arrowed atom which are sp3. Remember to include non-bonding electrons not shown and hydrogen that are implied. all atoms in the sugar molecule are sp3 Question 2. Fill in all non-bonding electrons. Question 3. Identify sigma and pi bonds. NH N O O sugar N N NH 2 O sugar σ σ σ σ σ , π σ σ , π σ π Question 4. Predict bond angles and overall geometry. NH N N N O NH 2 sugar The bond angles about the arrowed C-N-C bonds is 109 bec ause they are sp3. All other bonds are 120 due to sp2 hybridization. Overall geometry would be planar.
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Question 5. Which carbon bond is shortest and which longest. C-C single bonds are longest and C-C double bonds are shorter. (In reference to adenine in question 1) Factors affecting bond length: 1. Bond order triple < double < single. As pi bonds are added, bond length gets shorter. 2. Bond length is a a factor of the distance between two nuclei,
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Unformatted text preview: As atomic radius gets larger, bond length gets longer. a. C-F length is 135 pm b. C-Br length is 194 pm c. C-I length is 214 pm Factors affecting bond strength: 1. orbital overlap. Good overlap leads to stronger bonds. Cyclopropane has poor overlap so the bonds are weaker than in propane. 2. bond polarity. More polar bonds are usually stronger, greater skew in electronegativity leads to greater electronic attraction relevant to repulsion within the bond. 3. dependent on bond order and bond length. a. Shorter bonds are stronger, more pi character leads to stronger bonds 4. More s character leads to stronger bonds because it holds the electrons tighter to the nucleus. 5. strong adherence to the idealized bond angle leads to less strain, hence greater stability. Question 6. Draw an orbital diagram. C C N C C C N sugar H H...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor Gauthier during the Spring '08 term at Vanderbilt.

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Answers-HW1 - As atomic radius gets larger, bond length...

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