10:9 Proteins and Nucleic Acids

Aat 5 3 t a acc t gg c g g c t a a a t c c t a g t a

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Unformatted text preview: C T A T A G C G A T A T C G need an activating triphosphate here to power the reaction. G T A T 3' 11-3 Failure of DNA polymerase's proofreading mechanism leads to a copy error remaining in a newly made strand. 3. Mismatch repair: newly replicated side G T G C A TA G T T A G C C A C G T ACC A A T C G original template side—methylated side Mismatch on the newly replicated side is recognized and removed by mismatch repair enzymes (Note: nucleotides adjacent to the mismatch may also be removed.) GTGCAT GTTAGC CACGTACCAATCG A T DNA polymerase (along with a supply of activated nucleotides) catalyzes the replacement of missing nucleotides, and DNA ligase seals the remaining gap in the sugar-phosphate backbone. C G GTGCATGGTTAGC CACGTACCAATCG 4. Repairing damage: UV G T G C A T G G T A G C CACGTACCAATCG Altered portion of damaged DNA strand is recognized and removed by a group of proteins called DNA repair nucleases. (Note: nucleotides adjacent to the damaged area may also be removed.) Two forms of damageCGT TGATG G C A A Ch A C C G T T Gh T G G C A A Ch A C damage (single-stranded) damage (double-stranded) GTGCATGG TAGC CACGTACCAATCG A C T G DNA polymerase (along with a supply of activated nucleotides) catalyzes the replacement of missing nucleotides, and DNA ligase seals the remaining gap in the sugar-phosphate backbone. GTGCATGGTTAGC CACGTACCAATCG Mutations cannot be repaired: CGT TGATG GCA ACT AC copy error CGT TGATG GCA ACC AC * damage CGT TGATG G C A A Ch A C * replicating altered DNA strand can lead to a mutation CGT TGGTG GCA ACC AC * 11-4 Protein synthesis(making a specific protein): 1. Genetic regulation 2. DNA transciption 3. RNA translation DNA transcription: When DNA gets copied from this 2-sided form, it gets copied as RNA. RNA is the intermediary. Ribonucleotides: Ribonucleotide (basic structure) Ribonucleotide (an example) phosphate Chemical structure graphical representation graphical representation Chemical structure -O O- HO CH2 C H O O 3' H OH H H C C HO nitrogenous base H C C N H N U H C N H H C C H N H C N O N C C O H N H C HO CH2 C G H N H OH O H H C C C H OH RNA (single-sided x Zero Vma Zero U A C U C start Some deta...
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This document was uploaded on 03/27/2014.

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