10:9 Proteins and Nucleic Acids

G 3 promoter termination signal start 3 5 5 3 a gene

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Unformatted text preview: into a unique shape. U G CUGUG A M GA MMC C CUCG M UG G GAGC G GGA G A CG Based on pairing of nitrogenous CG bases, the RNA self-assembles into a AU GC three looped arrangement. The M = a nucleotide that has, through AU formation of three loops is characteristic enzyme action, been covalently M C A modified. The modification occurs of all tRNAs. U M GAA after transcription. DNA transcription of a tRNA gene results in a small RNA (70 to 90 ribonucleotides) anticodon an amino acid attaches here GAA anticodon 11-7 Activating tRNAs(ready to use in translation): a specific type of leucine, aminoacyl-tRNA ATP, synthetase type f a pecific s o leucine, aminoacyl-tRNA tRNA (with ATP, synthetase GAA anticodon) (with tRNA Zero x Vm a Zero Some details: ATP Leu ATP Leu P The enzyme with the right shape grabs both ATP (a high energy molecule) and the amino acid leucine. Leu Leu P Leu AMP The enzyme catalyzes the conversion of leucine to its activated (high-energy) form. In the process two phosphates are removed and AMP becomes linked to the amino acid. The activated (loaded) tRNA is released, and the enzyme becomes available to catalyze the same series of reactions once again. activated tRNA AMP x Vma GAA anticodon) a specific type of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase activated tRNA (loaded with leucine) activated tRNA two phosphates, (loaded with leucine) two AMP phosphates, This same enzyme has the right shape to also grab a specific type of tRNA (the one with the anticodon GAA). The enzyme catalyzes a second reaction—the binding of leucince with the tRNA. The removal of AMP provides the energy to drive the reaction. Leu AMP GAA AMP GAA GAA GAA Ribosomes: large subunit small subunit mRNA binding site tRNA tRNA binding site binding site (A-site) (P-site) Genetic interpretation: RNA translation-overview: a summary (1000s of different types) tRNA gene (30 to 40 different types) rRNA gene (3 to 4 different types) genetic regulation (turning on and off transcription) mRNA tRNA (1 of 1000s possible) (1 of 30 to 40 possible) (loaded on to tRNAs) RNA translation (mRNA, ribosome, tRNAs, assorted proteins) protein (of a specific amino acid sequence) x Vma DNA transcription (whenever a gene is turned on) amino acids Zero prote...
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