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Life Span Exam 2 Study Guide

Life Span Exam 2 Study Guide - Life Span Exam 2 Study Guide...

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Life Span Exam 2 Study Guide____________________ Chapter 6 – Perception Fantz’s experiment on infant visual perception- what do they prefer to look at? o Infants prefer a clear pattern (ex. Black and white checkerboard) over a blank stimulus or an elaborate one such as the front page of the New York Times. Sensation: bottom-up processing, transduction o Sensation – Detection of physical energy from the environment by sensory receptors. Transmitting info to brain. Changing, encoding or transducting that energy into neural signals. ‘bottom-up’ processing Based on properties of stimulus Sensations coming up to the brain Perception: top-down processing o Perception – selecting, organizing and interpreting stimuli, making meaning. ‘Top-down’ processing – cognitive influences on perception, based on ‘higher level’ information, prior knowledge or experience or wiring. Habituation and dishabituation o Habituation – a simple form of learning that involves learning not to respond to a repeated stimulus; learning to be bored by the familiar. o Dishabituation – unlearning a habit. Preferential looking or visual preference method o Presenting two stimulus’s at one time and recording how long infant looks at each. Which one do they have a PREFERENCE for looking at? Intermodal or Cross-modal perception
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o Recognizing through one sense an object familiar through another. Ex. Placing a toy in a bag and then having the child tell you what it is by FEEL. Hearing acuity at birth – can babies hear before birth? o More developed than vision o Orient to soft sounds/startle, retreat from loud ones o Recognize mother’s voice o Biologically prepared for speech Recognize all phonems at birth. Visual Acuity at birth and one year? o At birth- poor! 20/600 vision. Prefers bold patterns with sharp contrast o 6mo-1yr – accommodation: change in shape of lens to focus objects Olfactory capability at 1 wk – recognition of mother by smell in breast fed babies. Figure/ground – human’s ability to separate elements based upon contrast Contour – can visualize at 3 mo. Patterns – contours, light/dark edges, movement, moderate complexity. 2-3 month milestone,
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