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The Chemical Basis of Life Study Guide

The Chemical Basis of Life Study Guide - 2 THE CHEMISTRY OF...

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1 2 THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE FOCUS: Chemistry is the study of the composition and structure of substances and the reactions they undergo. Matter is composed of atoms which consist of a nucleus (protons and neutrons) surrounded by electrons. The chemical bonds between atoms of molecules include ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds. A chemical reaction is the process by which atoms or molecules interact to form or break chemical bonds. Important large organic molecules in humans are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Basic Chemistry ❛❛ Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. ❜❜ A. M atch these terms with the Kilogram Matter correct statement or definition: Mass Weight 1. Anything that occupies space and has mass. 2. Amount of matter in an object. 3. Gravitational force acting on an object of given mass. 4. International unit for mass. An object with 1/1000 the mass of the standard kilogram cylinder is defined to have the mass of 1 gram. C ONTENT EARNING L A CTIVITY
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2 B. M atch these terms with the Atom Nucleus correct statement or definition: Electron Neutron Electron cloud Proton Element 1. Simplest type of matter with unique chemical properties. 2. Smallest particle of an element that has the chemical characteristics of that element. 3. Subatomic particle with no electrical charge. 4. Subatomic particle with a negative charge; moves around nucleus. 5. Region where electrons are most likely to be found. The atomic number of an element is equal to the number of protons in each atom. C. M atch these terms with Atom Neutron the correct parts labeled Electron cloud Proton in figure 2.1: Nucleus 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Figure 2.1
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3 Electrons and Chemical Bonding ❛❛ Chemical bonding occurs when the outermost electrons are transferred or shared between atoms. ❜❜ U sing the terms provided, complete these statements: Covalent Ionic Double Ions Electrons Nonpolar Hydrogen Polar Much of an atom's chemical behavior is determined by its outermost (1 ) . Atoms that have lost or gained electrons are called (2 ) . (3 ) bonding occurs when oppositely charged ions are attracted to each other. (4 ) bonds result when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. If two pairs of electrons are shared, a (5 ) covalent bond is formed. Unequal sharing of electrons produces a (6 ) covalent bond, such as in water molecules. (7 ) bonds result when molecules with polar covalent bonds are weakly attracted to ions or other polar covalent molecules. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Molecules and Compounds ❛❛ Atoms can combine to form more complex structures. ❜❜ U sing the terms provided, complete these statements: Compound Molecule Dissociate A (1 ) is formed when two or more atoms chemically combine to form a structure that behaves as an independent unit. A (2 ) is a substance composed of two or more different types of atoms that are chemically combined. H 2 and O 2 are examples of a (3 ) that is not a (4) . On the other hand, an ionic compound is not a (5 ) because the ions are held together by the force of attraction between opposite charges.
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