Ch9Respirationpt2

Ch9Respirationpt2 - AP Bio Ch 9 Respiration part 2 RJ 6th...

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AP Bio Ch. 9 Respiration part 2 RJ 6th edition   Name: Jason Shah  The point here is to understand the big ideas of oxidative respiration with enough  biochemical detail to substantiate those ideas without choking on the details. A.   Describe each process in enough detail to answer the question:   What is the role of  this process or molecule in making energy available for cellular activities?   Where  does the process or molecule fit on the “overview “? do  NOT  just define the term:   answer the question.    Glycolysis: First half of Glycolysis: One glucose is converted into two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphates (G3P) Processes expend energy Second half of Glycolysis: G3P converted into pyruvate Energy producing processes Ten reactions comprise four main steps Step A, glucose priming Changes arrangement of glucose molecule Uses two ATP Step B, cleavage and rearrangement Six-carbon molecule split into two three carbon molecules Ultimately end up with two G3P molecules Step C, oxidation Two electrons and one proton transferred from G3P to NAD+ Forms NADH, one per G3P, two per glucose Step D, ATP generation G3P converted into pyruvate (two per glucose) Two ATP made per G3P, four ATP per glucose Net energy is 24 k/cal per mole of glucose (3.5% of what's available) Even though amount is small, life survived on it for a billion years Evolution of Glycolysis was backwards like most biochemical reactions ATP-producing breakdown of G3P evolved first Synthesis of G3P developed later when original G3P used up
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Glycolysis was among the earliest pathways to evolve Does not require oxygen, occurs readily in anaerobic environment Reactions occur freely in the cytoplasm All organisms, but a few bacteria, exhibit glycolysis Glycolysis has been added to, but not replaced by other processes Evolution is an incremental process  Change occurs by improving upon past success Three changes occur during glycolysis Glucose is converted to two pyruvates Two ADP's are converted to ATP's Two NAD+ molecules are converted to NADH's Glycolytic processes cannot continue ad infinitum Cell will ultimately accumulate NADH and run out of NAD+ NADH must be recycled back to NAD+ for glycolysis to continue
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