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AP Biology Test Review Guide

AP Biology Test Review Guide - Jason Shah AP Biology...

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Jason Shah AP Biology Period #2 AP Biology Test Review Guide: Ecology: Chapter 28: A. The Water Cycle Animals lose water through sweat, feces, urine, breath H2O molecules do not break or split. 1. The Path of Free Water Water evaporates from the oceans into the atmosphere Moisture from plants reaches the atmosphere through transpiration Most precipitation falls into the ocean but the rest is held in bodies of fresh water Only 2% of the earth’s water is captured 2. The Importance of Water to Organisms Ability to capture water decides life or death Plants get the water from the earth Animals get water directly or from plants and animals they eat Amount of free water relates to abundance of life 3. Groundwater Found in  aquifers:  permeable, saturated, underground layers of rock, sand,  and gravel. Water table:  the unconfined upper portion of groundwater which flows into  streams and is accessible by plants. Recharged by precipitation and water seeping down from lakes, rivers, etc. Problems are appearing where humans are overusing the aquifers, and they are  not able to replenish themselves. Also a problem with chemical pollution in groundwater from pesticides and  herbicides, and also dumping chemical waste in ponds and lagoons. 4. Breaking the Water Cycle In forest ecosystems plants absorb the water and then transpire it back into the  air where it is then returned as rainfall.
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However, due to deforestation, such forest ecosystems have had their water  cycle ruined because not enough water is transpired back to cause  precipitation; instead it is drained away to the sea. The process/damage is extremely hard if not impossible to reverse or fix. B. The Carbon Cycle Cycle based on carbon dioxide Plants use photosynthesis to capture the carbon Respiration returns the carbon dioxide to the atmosphere Fossil Fuels also contain carbon and burning them releases carbon dioxide Due to the recent increase in burning fossil fuels, the carbon dioxide levels have  risen and continue to rise. Thus, the balance between photosynthesis and respiration has been shifted and  we can see the effects already through global warming. Fixed carbon compound plus oxygen yields carbon dioxide and water through a  combustion reaction. C. The Nitrogen Cycle Bacteria Can convert atmosphere nitrogen into forms that can be used for biological  processes Very stable (3x bond) Nitrogen Fixation: N2BH2   2NH3 Some bacteria form symbiotic relationships with plants Only symbiotic produce significant amounts of nitrogen
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