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Jason ShahOctober 15, 2006AP Biology Period #2AP Bio Organelle Review:1.Compare flagella in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells•Both stick outside the cell and produce propulsion•Eukaryotic:oa bundle of nine fused pairs of microtubules called "doublets" surrounding two central single microtubules (the so-called 9+2 structure; also called the "axoneme").oAt the base of a eukaryotic flagellum is a microtubule organizing center about 500 nanometers long, called the basal body or kinetosome.oEncased within the cell's plasma membrane, so that the interior of the flagellum is accessible to the cell's cytoplasm.oFlexing is driven by the protein dynein bridging the microtubules all along its length and forcing them to slide relative to each other, and ATP must be transported to them for them to function.•Prokaryotic:oHas 3 basic parts: a filament, a hook, and a basal body.oThe filament is the rigid, helical structure that extends from the cell surface. It is composed of the protein flagellin arranged in helical chains so as to form a hollow core. During synthesis of the flagella filament, flagellin molecules coming off of the ribosomes are thought to be transported through the hollow core of the filament where they attach to the growing tip of the filament causing it to lengthen.oThe hook is a flexible coupling between the filament and the basal body.oThe basal body consists of a rod and a series of rings that anchor the flagellum to the cell wall and the cytoplasmic membrane. Unlike eukaryotic flagella, the bacterial flagellum has no internal fibrils and does not flex. Instead, the basal body acts as a molecular motor, enabling the flagellum to rotate and propel the bacterium through the surrounding fluid. In fact, the flagellar motor rotates very rapidly. (The motor of E. coli rotates 270 revolutions per second!)
o2.Link cell type to time line.3.Link endosymbiosis to timeline.4.Compare organelles in plants and animals.1. Only plant cells have a central vacuole - lg sack for storage & cell volume increase5B4B3B2B1BNow4.5B – Earth is formed3.8B – First Cells appear (Prokaryotic)1.5B – Eukaryotic cells EndosymbiosisOxygen increasing.6B – Multicellular cells65M – Dinosaurs extinct1-2M:Humans
2. Only plant cells have chloroplasts for photosynthesis3. Only plant cells have a cell wall for support and protection outside of the cell membrane4. Only animal cells have centrioles - structures that assist in the organization of cell division.