AP Biology Review Guide Chapters 4 & 5

AP Biology Review Guide Chapters 4 & 5 - AP Biology...

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AP Biology Review Guide: Organelles (Ch. 4&5) By Simi Jain & Megan Valentine a. Compare flagella in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Flagella are a cellular extension that long and threadlike used for motility of the moving of  fluids over surfaces. Protrudes from the cell membrane. For both eukaryotes and prokaryotes,  the flagella are made of protein.  Flagella in eukaryotes are complex structures that whip back  and forth rather than rotating. They are long and few (vs. cilia which are short and many).  Structurally, both flagella and cilia are made up of microtubules arranged in a “9+2”  arrangements—9 pairs of microtubules arranged in a circle surrounding a pair of microtubules  (pg. 30 of Cliffs). They have a plasma membrane surrounding their flagella. They attached to  the basal body which is structurally identical to a centriole.   Ex. A single flagellum propels  sperm.   About half of all prokaryotes are capable of directional movement. Flagellar action is  the most common mechanism of movement. Flagella may be scattered across the cell surface  or be concentrate at either end of the cell. Prokaryotic flagella are one tenth the width of  eukaryotic flagella and are not covered by an extension of the plasma membrane. Prokayotic  flagella are simple, composed of a single fiber of protein that spins like a propeller. They are  much more common in prokaryotic cells than in eukaryotic cells.  b. Link cell type to timeline and c. Link endosymbiosis to timeline                                                                                                                           b.Prokaryotes are simple and small. They are  thought to be the first type on earth. No  structures can be seen inside the prokaryotic  cells with a light microscope. They have such  small cellular volume that their cytoplasm has  no where to go and hence do not move around  within the cell. There is a cellular membrane  and most have a cell wall surrounding their  membrane. Also present are ribosomes and a  singular, circular chromosome made of DNA  without any associated protein. Today, the only  living prokaryotes are bacteria and blue-green  algae. They are unicellular.  Eukaryotic cells are  much larger and more complex, mainly  multicellular with different cell types. The DNA  is associated with specific proteins called  histones. Together they make linear  chromosomes that can be seen clearly with a  light microscope during certain times of the cell  cycle. The number of chromosomes depends  on the type of organism. The chromosomes 
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