Motivation - Organizational Analysis and Development...

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Organizational Analysis and Development Project Spring 2007 MGT301 Motivation Presented by: Khalil El Noury 1
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Motivation In psychology, motivation refers to the initiation, direction, intensity and persistence of behavior (Geen, 1995). Motivation is a temporal and dynamic state that should not be confused with personality or emotion. Motivation is having the desire and willingness to do something. A motivated person can be reaching for a long-term goal such as becoming a professional writer or a more short-term goal like learning how to spell a particular word. Personality invariably refers to more or less permanent characteristics of an individual's state of being (e.g., shy, extrovert, conscientious). As opposed to motivation, emotion refers to temporal states that do not immediately link to behavior (e.g., anger, grief, happiness). History of the concept The claim that humans are hedonistically motivated was argued by Jeremy Bentham in An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation : “Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do” (Bentham 1789). Biological psychology of drives Drive theory There are a number of drive theories. The Drive Reduction Theory grows out of the concept that we have certain biological needs, such as hunger. As time passes the strength of the drive increases as it is not satisfied. Then as we satisfy that drive by fulfilling its desire, such as eating, the drive's strength is reduced. It is based on the theories of Freud and the idea of feedback control systems, such as a thermostat. 2
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There are several problems, however, that leave the validity of the Drive Reduction Theory open for debate. The first problem is that it does not explain how Secondary Rein forcers reduce drive. For example, money does not satisfy any biological or psychological need but reduces drive on a regular basis through a pay check . Secondly, if the drive reduction theory held true we would not be able to explain how a hungry human being can prepare a meal without eating the food before they finished cooking it. Regulation of behaviour Rewards and incentives A reward is that which is given following the occurrence of behaviour with the intention of acknowledging the positive nature of that behaviour, and often with the additional intent of encouraging it to happen again. The definition of reward is not to be confused with the definition of rein forcer, which includes a measured increase in the rate of a desirable behaviour following the addition of something to the environment. There are two kinds of rewards, extrinsic and intrinsic. Extrinsic rewards are external to, or outside of, the individual; for example, praise or money. Intrinsic rewards are internal to, or within, the individual; for example, satisfaction or accomplishment.
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