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Unformatted text preview: China's Writing S te ys m Likeothe scripts of ancie origin, r nt C seis de d frompicturewriting. hine rive I t gre into a word-by-word w re se pre ntation of languagewhe it n was discove d that words too abstract re to bere adily picture could be d indicate by the sound rathe than d ir r the se . ir nse Unlikeothe scripts, Chine s r se till works pictographically as we as ll phone tically. The Chinese written language is of an old and conservative type that assigns a single distinctive symbol, or character, to each syllable. Knowledge of 3,000 to 4,000 characters is needed to read newspapers, and a large dictionary contains more than 40,000 characters Chinese Abbreviations & Pictographs Phonetic loans are pictographs of concrete words borrowed to indicate abstract words of the same or similar sound. Today, simple pictographs continue to be used for some of the most basic vocabulary-- home, mother, child, rice, fire. r To express modern concepts, Chinese generally makes use of equivalents from its native stock of meaningful syllables or renders such terms in phonetic spelling. Qin Shihuangdi enforced a simplified, standardized writing called the Small Seal. In the Han dynasty (206 bc-ad 220) this developed into the Clerical, Running, Draft, and Standard scripts. Printed Chinese is modeled on the Standard Script. Cursive or rapid writing introduced many abbreviated characters used in artistic calligraphy and in commercial and private correspondence, but it was long banned from official documents. Chinese Literature The texts promoted by Confucius became known in later centuries as Jing (Classics), taking their final form after the Han empire adopted them as a state orthodoxy in the last two centuries bc. The I Ching (Yi jing, or Book of Changes) presents the universe and human society as constantly changing but having a definable order. The Shu jing (Book of History) purports to be a collection of speeches, discussions, and other matter from the 3rd millennium bc to the 6th century bc, but much of it is clearly more recent. The Shi jing (Book of Songs) is a collection of folk songs, love poems, and ceremonial odes composed between 1200 and 600 bc The Li ji (Book of Ritual) contains detailed discussions of the principles of conduct at court and in private ceremonies. The Chun qiu (Spring and Autumn Annals) is a simple chronicle of the state of Lu, where Confucius was born, in the years from 722 to 481 bc (known as the Spring and Autumn period). The Yue jing (The Book of Music) is believed to have been lost before the founding of the Han dynasty, and there is no known copy in existence. However, a very large set of orchestral instruments inscribed with texts of music theory was unearthed in the late 20th century in the central Chinese province of Hubei. Religion Issues After gaining control in 1949, the Chinese Communist Party officially eliminated organized religion. The CCP's move received little resistance because Confucianism is largely secular and because most Chinese adhered to aspects of all three major faiths; thus they lacked strong allegiance to any single religion. Most temples, churches, and schools of Buddhism, Daoism, Islam, and Christianity were converted to secular purposes. Only with the constitution of 1978 was official support again given for the promulgation of formal religion Agri culture
China has 7 percent of the world's arable land with which to support more than 20 percent of the world's population. Over the centuries, the Chinese have built irrigation projects to the extent that almost half of cultivated land is now irrigated. China long had a food deficit, but as a result of new irrigation projects, improved farming techniques since 1949, and agricultural reforms since the late 1970s, China now produces enough grain to provide a basic diet for its large population. China's population comprises many different ethnic groups and nationalities, although about 92 percent of the population are ethnic Han. During the Han dynasty the people of the north, central, and southern plains and basins of eastern China came to see themselves as part of the same group. They shared a common written language, similar values derived from the ideas of Confucius and other classical writers, and a settled agricultural system based on growing grains, such as wheat, rice, and millet. Among the most significant of these groups were the Mongols to the north and northwest, the Manchus to the northeast, various Muslim Turkic peoples in the far west, and the Tibetans to the west and southwest. Ethnic Groups Population Facts
China's population has increased much over the years The census in 1982 revealed a population of 1,008,180,000, making China the first nation with a population of more than 1 billion. However, the growth rate has slowed in step with declining fertility and birth rates At this rate, China's population still grows by millions of people each year. Although China's economy has grown rapidly, especially since the early 1990s, it has not been able to provide enough good opportunities for all new workers, many of whom have only minimal education and skills. Chinese Music
Melody and timbre are prominent expressive features of Chinese instrumental music, and great emphasis is given to the proper articulation and inflection of each musical tone. Heterophonic texture--several instruments playing the same melody with different embellishments--is an important performance style for traditional Chinese instrumental ensembles. Many different kinds of bands and ensembles can be found in China's vast rural areas. Through the lyrics and linguistic tones, Chinese language has been the foundation for most traditional Chinese music In ancient times, Chinese musical instruments were classified according to the materials used in their construction: metal, stone, silk, bamboo, gourd, clay, skin, and wood. Modernization
To help quicken the pace of modernization, the state encouraged foreign investment and the import of advanced technology In 1980 China began establishing special zones for foreign investment. (1984)Chinese government shifted the emphasis of the economic reforms to urban areas, it: extended greater decision-making power to managers of state-owned enterprises replaced the system of collecting all profits with one of collecting taxes on profits. Clothing As a result of its size and diverse population, China has seen many clothing styles. Many Westerners think that Chinese clothing has remained unchanged for 5,000 years. Around 200 BC, a popular women's fashion in southern China was a robe of patterned silk, which was wrapped in a spiral around the body Soldiers of the same period wore armor, made of small metal plates, over tunics and trousers. Until the 9th century, when foot binding was introduced to prevent the feet of girls from growing, both men and women in China wore the same kind of high shoes. Symbolism of Clothing in China
Clothing in China was regulated by social status, gender, age, and occasion, beginning at least as early as 500 BC and continuing until the early 20th century. Members of the upper class tended to wear long robes. Both male and female peasants wore jackets and trousers. Members of the imperial court and court officials could wear the dragon robe, a long gown embroidered with dragons, etc. In the 14th century, Chinese conservatives complained that fashions were changing too rapidly and that the lower classes were usurping the styles of their superiors. Chinese American Contributors
Chen Ning Yang(left) Chinese-born American theoretical physicist who disproved one of the basic laws of quantum mechanics. I. M. Pei (right) Chinese-American architect I. M. Pei established a worldwide reputation as an innovative designer. Interview Yo-Quel ,a Barbara Goleman student, is the person being interviewed. He has Chinese Heritage even though he was born here. 1.Q:How are the schools of China? A: You mostly live in the school ,since education is very valuable 2.Q:What do you like about China? What do you dislike? A: I like the fast Chinese food restaurants of China. What I dislike is that the toilet is on the floor; it's a hole in the ground and you have to squat. 3.Q:What forms of entertainment are people accustomed to? A: I like the TV schedule; you see every episode of different series in order, and every three months there's a new show 4.Q:Is there any sport on China that we don't know much of? A: Pingpong!! I think that people here don't even know what pingpong is! On China, you watch pingpong everyday on TV. 5.Q: What's your favorite Chinese dish? A: Noodle soup is my favorite... Q: Is noodle soup from China? A: I'm almost sure it is. 6.Q: How's your knowledge on Chinese Literature coming up? A:I can't read a Chinese newspaper yet; there's just so many characters! 7.Q: What religion do you practice? A: Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism 8. Q: From whose side of the family does your Chinese heritage comes from? A: From my father's 9.Q:Which Chinese landmark do you like the most? A: Mao Shrine. It's on Beijing 10.Q:What is your opinion on Chinese society? A: People will help you on China; they are very nice. References Encyclopedia Encarta (2003) China, Chinese Art & Architecture, Chinese Language, Chinese Literature, Music Computer program Encyclopedia Americana(199098) Information on Han Dynasty, communism, characteristics on population. Library Collier's Encyclopedia (1999) Ethnical Backgrounds, Arts & Writing Library Corel Draw Photo Paint Archives(2000) Pictures (lute ,harvest, Confucius) Computer archive ...
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- Spring '07