136 epispadias epispadias is a congenital defect

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Unformatted text preview: and cause injury. The parent should be taught to monitor the temperature, provide analgesics as needed, and monitor the urine output. 136. Epispadias Epispadias is a congenital defect involving abnormal placement of the urethral orifice of the penis. The urethral opening is located anywhere on the dorsum of the penis. This anatomical characteristic facilitates entry of bacteria into the urine. 137. Nephrotic Syndrome Nephrotic syndrome is a kidney disorder characterized by massive proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia (hypoproteinemia), and edema. A child with edema from nephrotic syndrome will be at high risk for skin breakdown. Skin surfaces should be cleaned and separated with clothing to prevent irritation and resultant skin breakdown. The child will be anorexic so a risk for imbalanced nutrition, more than body requirements is not a concern. A risk for constipation or ineffective thermoregulation is not a concern with nephrotic syndrome. 138. Hypospadias At the age of 1 year, a child¶s fears of separation...
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