NSG 210 Test 3 Study Guide

Other causative factors include exposure to certain

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Unformatted text preview: Antiemetics & antacids may be used to control dyspeptic s/s, but meds should be avoided if vomiting occurs  ­Nutrition Therapy: a diet high in carbs & calories w/ moderate amts of fat & proteins Small, frequent meals w/ high calorie snacks inbetween. Vitamin supplements Hepatitis C (HCV) Epidemiology  ­HCV is most common chronic bloodborne infection in US  ­Most prevalent in adults 40 ­59 years old & in highest in African Americans  ­HCV is the underlying cause of 1/3 of hepatocellular carcinoma cases & the most common reason for liver transplants Mode of Transmission: blood & body fluids. Same as HBV (see above). S/S: similar to HBV, usually mild. A chronic carrier state occurs frequently & there is an increased risk of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis & liver cancer after HCV.  ­Small amounts of alcohol ingestion taken regularly may progress HCV. Alcohol & meds that affect the liver should be avoided Ax/Dx:  ­Enzyme ­linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the initial screening tool used if HCV exposure is suspected  ­Recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) is a more concrete test & confirms the dx once ELISA is used.  ­HCV PCR RNA Test identifies the viral load (how much virus is circulating in cubic mm of blood) & circulating virus.  ­OraQuick HCV Rapid Antibody Test was recently approved by the FDA & leads to a quicker dx than RIBA. Prevention: same as for HBV. No vaccine to prevent Tx: Drug therapy  ­Unlike HBV, there is no benefit from rest, diet or vitamin supplements.  ­The combination of two anti ­viral agents (Interferon & Rebetol) are effective in treating relapses & pts seem to show improvement. Hepatitis D(HDV) Mode of Transmission: same as HBV. HDV requires HBV surface antigen; only ppl w/ HBV are at risk for HDV.  ­Common among IV/injection drug users, hemodialysis pts, recipients of multiple blood transfusions & sexual contact w/ an HBV carrier. S/S: similar to HBV but pts w/ HDV are more likely to develop fulminant hepatitis & to progress...
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