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Unformatted text preview: es under an
oath declaring they never helped the
Confederates, and (3) no votes for lieutenants
and above and officials.
- Lincoln pocket-vetoed the Wade-Davis Bill, prompting
the Radical Republicans to issue the “Wade-Davis
Manifesto” to the papers [attacking Lincoln]. The debate
was in full swing.
- Nevertheless, in early 1865 Congress and Lincoln
joined in passing two key measures. One was the
Thirteenth Amendment [January 31], which abolished
involuntary servitude and gave Congress the power to
enforce the law. Then on March 3, 1865 Congress
created the Freedmen’s Bureau, a federal aid agency
that was to deal with the mess created by the war. This
129 later became controversial, as the Southerners hated it
and there was a question as to its constitutionality.
*Johnson Takes Over Reconstruction*
- After Lincoln’s assassination, Andrew Johnson, a
Southerner, white supremacist, states rights supporter,
and Unionist [he was the only senator from a seceded
state to stay in the Union], took over the Reconstruction
process w/o Congress [it had recessed shortly before he
took over]. Basically, Johnson’s whole policy can be
summed up w/his slogan – “The Constitution as it is, and
the Union as it was.”
- But even though Johnson’s plan was aiming for
continued denial of black civil rights [it included the policy
that black suffrage could never be imposed on the
Southern states by the federal gov’t], it initially seemed to
favor a change of leadership in the South that would
eliminate the old planter aristocracy.
- This was b/c it was stated that certain people [officers,
officials, and *all Southerners w/property worth more than
$20,000] were not allowed to take the oath of loyalty that
would allow them to gain amnesty. Instead, they had to
apply personally to the President for a pardon.
- But the whole idea of this plan went out the window
when Johnson began issuing thousands of pardons,
which let many planters return to the newly created state
gov’ts. Most likely, this was b/c he hoped to make
Reconstruction quick [end it before the Radicals get a
chance to do anything].
- So after only 8 months, Johnson declared
Reconstruction complete, allowing many former
Confederates to return to Congress in December 1865.
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2014 for the course APUSH AP United taught by Professor Orban during the Fall '10 term at Harrison High School, Harrison.
- Fall '10