130 congress challenges johnsons authority congress

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Unformatted text preview: es under an oath declaring they never helped the Confederates, and (3) no votes for lieutenants and above and officials. - Lincoln pocket-vetoed the Wade-Davis Bill, prompting the Radical Republicans to issue the “Wade-Davis Manifesto” to the papers [attacking Lincoln]. The debate was in full swing. - Nevertheless, in early 1865 Congress and Lincoln joined in passing two key measures. One was the Thirteenth Amendment [January 31], which abolished involuntary servitude and gave Congress the power to enforce the law. Then on March 3, 1865 Congress created the Freedmen’s Bureau, a federal aid agency that was to deal with the mess created by the war. This 129 later became controversial, as the Southerners hated it and there was a question as to its constitutionality. *Johnson Takes Over Reconstruction* - After Lincoln’s assassination, Andrew Johnson, a Southerner, white supremacist, states rights supporter, and Unionist [he was the only senator from a seceded state to stay in the Union], took over the Reconstruction process w/o Congress [it had recessed shortly before he took over]. Basically, Johnson’s whole policy can be summed up w/his slogan – “The Constitution as it is, and the Union as it was.” - But even though Johnson’s plan was aiming for continued denial of black civil rights [it included the policy that black suffrage could never be imposed on the Southern states by the federal gov’t], it initially seemed to favor a change of leadership in the South that would eliminate the old planter aristocracy. - This was b/c it was stated that certain people [officers, officials, and *all Southerners w/property worth more than $20,000] were not allowed to take the oath of loyalty that would allow them to gain amnesty. Instead, they had to apply personally to the President for a pardon. - But the whole idea of this plan went out the window when Johnson began issuing thousands of pardons, which let many planters return to the newly created state gov’ts. Most likely, this was b/c he hoped to make Reconstruction quick [end it before the Radicals get a chance to do anything]. - So after only 8 months, Johnson declared Reconstruction complete, allowing many former Confederates to return to Congress in December 1865. 130 *Con...
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2014 for the course APUSH AP United taught by Professor Orban during the Fall '10 term at Harrison High School, Harrison.

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