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Unformatted text preview: anything else. He
began by announcing his Fourteen Points, which
included self-determination, freedom of the seas, lower
tariffs, arms reduction, open diplomacy, blah, blah,
blah…and the League of Nations.
- It was a nice idea and all, but when Wilson arrived in
Paris in December 1918 for the Peace Conference, he
had already screwed himself over in several ways – by
being cocky and by not bringing any Republican
Senators with him [the Republicans had swept the
Congressional elections]. Another problem he faced was
the fact that the other allies – France, Britain and Italy –
wanted to see Germany majorily punished.
190 - So, at Versailles, the Big Four met secretly, and came
out w/a treaty that included the dreaded war guilt clause
and huge payments for Germany. Also, it placed
German/Turkish colonies under the control of other
imperial nations [that was self-determination I guess] and
made new democracies in Eastern Europe.
- As for the key part, the charter for the League of
Nations, Wilson came up w/a council of 5 permanent
members [and some elected delegates from other
states], an assembly of all members, and a world court.
Most importantly, there was Article 10, a collective
security provision, which made members promise to
protect e/o’s territorial integrity against aggressors.
Germany was forced to sign, but it still wasn’t all good…
- This was b/c there was strong opposition to the treaty at
home, where Senators [and others] felt that the
Versailles’ Treaty didn’t protect US interests enough, and
that Article 10 was going to get the country stuck in a ton
of foreign entanglements. Charges of hypocrisy were
also rampant, as Wilson’s points hadn’t really been
included in the Treaty.
- There were two camps of opposition, basically: the
Irreconcilables (no treaty, no way) and the
Reservationists (yes, but make changes first). Senator
Henry Cabot Lodge was one of those urging slight
amendments to the charter, esp. making it so that
Congress had to approve obligations under Article 10.
- In response to the opposition, Wilson went on a
speaking tour and pretty much out-talked himself, leading
to a massiv...
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- Fall '10