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Unformatted text preview: es doing the same stupid little task over
and over again instead of making their own
decisions about techniques, starting and stopping
times, etc. Increased company control: in efforts to increase
worker efficiency, employers tried to establish
temperance/reform societies and control workers’
social lives. Other employers began paying per
item produced rather than by hour. Employment of women and children: as the need
for skilled workers decreased, employers cut
143 costs by hiring women and children for assembly
lines. Women also worked in the service sector
and in sales/secretarial positions. By 1900, some
state laws limited the employment of children, but
many companies still got away with it. Decreased independence: in addition to finding
their actual jobs more constricting, workers found
that their wages were largely beyond their control
and were often unable to find steady work – i.e.
they were trapped by the system. New threats at the workplace: workers
encountered industrial accidents, etc.
- So basically the machine gave the workers the crap end
of the deal. Worse still, they weren’t allowed to organize
effectively as a result of a series of anti-labor decisions,
and free-market views made it difficult for legislation
dealing with working hours and conditions to be passed.
- Supreme Court cases dealing with labor regulation: Holden v. Hardy (1896) – Court upheld regulation
on miners’ working hours Lochner v. New York (1905) – Court rejected
regulation on bakers’ working hours b/c job not
considered to be dangerous, interference
w/contract = violation of Fourteenth Amendment Muller v. Oregon (1908) – Court upheld regulation
on women laundry workers’ working hours,
claiming that women needed special protection,
led to laws banning women from occupations
- Generally, though, workers did not make much
progress, which led to the…
*The Union Movement* 144 - Important strikes/events relating to the Unions: 1877: In July, Unionized RRD workers struck to
protest wage cuts [b/c of Panic of 1873]. The
strikes led to violence, which was broken up by
state militia companies hired by the employers.
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2014 for the course APUSH AP United taught by Professor Orban during the Fall '10 term at Harrison High School, Harrison.
- Fall '10