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Unformatted text preview: en went on to become a
very pragmatic, influential organization that relied on new
tactics like sit-down strikes.
- Management still sometimes resorted to violence,
though, like in the Memorial Day Massacre, which
occurred when strikers in front of the Republic Steel plant
in Chicago were shot by the police in 1937.
*Racism during the Great Depression*
- African Americans, like the rest of the country, were
hurt by the GD, as they were pushed deeper into poverty
and segregation, as black unemployment rates were
higher than for whites. Hoover was quite insensitive to
209 race issues; he even tried to appoint an SC justice who
supported black disenfranchisement.
- Scottsboro Trial (1931) – Nine black teens were
arrested for throwing white hoboes off a train and were
then accused and convicted (by a white jury) of rape. An
SC ruling intervened, but they were still imprisoned.
- Organizations like the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car
Porters and the militant Harlem Tenants League fought
for civil rights and attacked discrimination, but they were
for the most part ignored. NAACP lawyers, however, still
made some gains in the SC ruling in Missouri ex rel.
Gaines v. Canada (1938).
- Then, with FDR’s election, blacks generally switched to
the Democratic side, mainly b/c of the relief programs.
FDR also had a “Black Cabinet,” as there had never
been so many black advisers before.
- Still, FDR didn’t really care for black civil rights (he was
also afraid of alienating voters in the South), so ND
welfare programs often ended up excluded blacks from
working or receiving aid. These inconsistencies spurred
blacks to seek direct action, as they knew they couldn’t
really rely on gov’t support.
- March on Washington Movement (1941) – In response
to discrimination in the new jobs in the war industries,
Randolph (leader of the porters’ union) came up with a
huge march. Afraid it would lead to riots, FDR then
promised to outlaw discrimination in war industries in
exchange for a cancellation of the march.
- Executive Order No. 8802 – In excha...
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2014 for the course APUSH AP United taught by Professor Orban during the Fall '10 term at Harrison High School, Harrison.
- Fall '10