In 1672 the dutch briefly retook the colony but in

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Unformatted text preview: invasion fleet, and the Dutch surrendered w/o resistance [the merchants thought it would be bad for business]. In 1672 the Dutch briefly retook the colony, but in 1674 they permanently ceded it as a result of their loss. New York was a very diverse colony and had a relatively high % of slaves as well, so the Duke was careful as he moved to establish his authority. For instance, in 1665 he passed The Duke’s Laws [first applied only to English settlements on Long Island and then later to the whole area], which maintained Dutch forms of local gov’t and (!) allowed religious toleration [each town could pick which church to support]. But it took until 1683 for an elected legislature to be formed. So basically, until the 18th century New York remained a relatively depopulated colony [grew slowly] w/few changes from Dutch rule. 12 New Jersey was formed b/c the Duke of York regranted part of his land in 1664 to his friends Sir George Carteret and John Lord Berkeley [this actually deprived N.Y. of much needed fertile land and was one of the reasons the colony grew so slowly]. New Jersey, however, partially b/c its owners used land grants, limited toleration and the promise of an assembly to attract colonists, grew rapidly. W/in 20 years Carteret and Berkeley sold their sections to investors. All of Carteret’s part and some of Berkeley’s went to the Quakers, who were seeking to escape persecution. Pennsylvania itself was actually founded by Quakers when in 1681 Charles II gave the region to his friend William Penn, who then held it as a personal proprietorship. Penn used his colony as a haven for fellow Quakers [who were radical egalitarians and denied the need for clergy] but also promised toleration, guaranteed English liberties to all, and established an assembly. His publicity efforts caused massive migration to the area. Some of the migrants were even Native Americans, b/c Penn promised to treat them fairly as well. But his toleration was a double-edged sword for the Indians, as many of...
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