Unformatted text preview: Gould and called off
the strike, but Gould would not concede, so the
militant unions began to quit the KOL, seeing it as
weak. American Federation of Labor: The AFL
emerged as the major organization after 1866.
Led by Samuel Gompers, it avoided the KOL
idealistic rhetoric, concentrated on concrete goals
[higher wages, shorter hours, right to bargain
collectively], and excluded unskilled workers and
women. The AFL also avoided party politics. Industrial Workers of the World [IWW,
“Wobblies”]: The IWW, which aimed to unite all
workers, was basically a sot/anarchist
organization that believed violence was justified to 146 overthrow capitalism. The organization finally
collapsed in WWI.
- Women in the Union movement: most Unions rejected
women due to a fear of competition [women would work
for lower wages] and sex segregation. Still, some women
formed their own Unions, and in 1903 the Women’s
Trade Union League was founded. The WTUL
encouraged protective legislation, education, and
women’s suffrage – it was an important link between
labor and the women’s movements.
- Immigrants/AA in the Union movement: most Unions
also rejected immigrants and African Americans b/c of
lower wages, and prejudices were reinforced when
blacks worked as strikebreakers.
- REMEMBER only a portion of workers were in unions;
job instability really made it hard for organizations to form
effectively. Fraternal societies were also prevalent during
*Standards of Living*
- Industrialization created the beginnings of the monster
we now know as our fully commercialized society.
Formerly isolated communities began to, through
electricity and communications, get access to good and
services. Status became more based on $ [more
mobility]; but the gap between rich and poor grew.
- Incomes rose a lot, but then again so did prices.
Working class families could hypothetically afford new
stuff, but they would have had to find additional sources
of income [i.e. subletting, child labor]. Overall, though,
paid employment became more prev...
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- Fall '10